In his letters he quotes from Homer, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes and Thucydides. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co.. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. zachary the rhetor cites a History of Chalcedon as written by Theodoret, but there is no trace of it; and the Libellus contra Nestorium ad Sporacium is not his. It was from his mother that he in- herited his interest in monks. 1319 sqq.). His writings against Cyril were included in the Three Chapters Controversy and were condemned at the Second Council of Constantinople. He was the child of a prosperous Antiochene couple who had been childless for many years. "To his most revered and likeminded brother Alexander, Alexander sendeth greeting in the Lord. He is considered blessed by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Theodoret stands out prominently in the Christological controversies aroused by Cyril of Alexandria. He thus illustrates that the overcoming of the Galenic paradigm is also proof that the holy men surpass the work of magicians. Theodoret, the most religious bishop, came up into the midst and said: `I have offered petitions to the most godlike, most religious and Christ-loving masters of the world, and I have related the disasters which have befallen me, and I claim that they shall be read.' Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. trans. [ 21] T : from the twentieth year of Constantine down to the reign of Leo I, in whose reign he died.” 104. by Baxter in 1847. Design of the History. Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). A chronology of the composition of these works can be developed by studying references in the latter works to the earlier works. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. This use of florilegia heralds a new stage in doctrinal development, in that it creates a new authority for Christian theology: that of the 'Fathers'. was pub. The Epistle of Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria to Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople. The Graecarum Affectionum Curatio or Cure of the Greek Maladies, subtitled The Truth of the Gospel proved from Greek Philosophy, arranged in twelve books, was an attempt to prove the truth of Christianity from Greek philosophy and in contrast with the pagan ideas and practises. There exist also his books of Ecclesiastical History, which he wrote in imitation of Eusebius of Cæsarea, beginning from the end of the books of Eusebius down to his own time, viz. , Two works, On the Holy and Life-giving Trinity and On the Incarnation of the Lord, have survived through ascription to his opponent Cyril of Alexandria.. Even Domnus gave his assent. Some Chalcedonian and East Syriac Christians regard him as a "full" saint.[a]. Origin of the Arian Heresy. Unlike most sermons, they are reasoned arguments, lectures rather than homilies on scriptural texts. ISBN. According to Valesius these were mainly Socrates and Sozomen; Albert Guldenpenning's thorough research placed Rufinus first, and next to him, Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, Sozomen, Sabinus, Philostorgius, Gregory Nazianzen, and, least of all, Socrates. Translated by Blomfield Jackson.  Domnus II, the successor of John, took him as his counsellor. However, Theodoret supplied numerous additional details from unknown sources. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. By the unavoidable imperfection of the translations, he states, the understanding is encumbered. His aim is to avoid a one-sidedness of literalness as well as of allegory.  Theodoret′s regional (provincial) differentiation of Aramaic dialects included an explicit distinction between the "Syrians" (as Aramaic speakers of Syria proper, western of Euphrates), and the "Osroenians" as Aramaic speakers of Osroene (eastern region, centered in Edessa), thus showing that dialect of the "Syrians" (Aramaic speakers of proper Syria) was known to have somewhat different pronunciation from that of the "Osroenians" (speakers of Edessan Aramaic). Of the twenty-seven orations in defence of various propositions, the first six agree in their given content with Theodoret. For the martyr, see, This evidence is assumed because, when later deprived of his see, he begs permission to return to this monastery, explaining it is 75 miles from Antioch and 20 miles from his episcopal city. CHAPTER III. To the persecuted Christians of Persian Armenia he sent letters of encouragement, and to the Carthaginian Celestiacus, who had fled the rule of the Vandals, he gave refuge. Eventually, Theodoret's birth was promised by a hermit named Macedonius the Barley-Eater on the condition of his dedication to God, whence the name Theodoret ("gift of God").. This work is distinguished for clearness of arrangement and style.. These florilegia provide evidence of Theodoret's considerable learning, with 238 texts drawn from 88 works, including pre-Nicene writers such as Ignatius, Irenaeus and Hippolytus, as well as theologians such as Athanasius and the Cappadocian Fathers. Another surviving work is the Expositio rectae fidei. The work is interspersed with lengthy florilegia (anthologies of patristic citations), which may be the reason for its preservation. This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a … Theodoret's last exegetical works were the interpretations of difficult passages in the Octateuch and Quaestiones dealing with the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, written about 452 to 453. For this reason, his history is valued today as a witness to fourth and fifth century church history. Contact information. Toward 453 Theodoret composed a Haereticarum fabularum compendium, a synopsis of all heresies down to Eutyches, describing in excellent brevity the variations of error with orthodox doctrine. Theodoret, the monastic bishop of Cyrrhus (near Zeitounak, north of Afrin in modern Syria), composed the Religious History in 440.4 Its twenty-eight narratives celebrate ascetics active in northwest Syria since the early fourth century.5 Theodoret illustrates in terms both heroic and biblical the practice of Hence he protests against the attributing of The Song of Songs to Solomon and the like as degrading the Holy Spirit. He made an appeal to Leo the Great, but not until after the death of Theodosius II in 450 was his appeal for a revocation of the judgments against him granted by imperial edict. Ignatius was martyred in Rome under Emperor Trajan's rule. The emperor at once gave plain indications of his adherence to true religion, and offered the first fruits of his kingdom to the Lord of all, by publishing an edict commanding the exiled shepherds to return, and to be restored to their flocks, and ordering the sacred buildings to be delivered to congregations adopting communion with Damasus. ", "John Chrysostom to Theodoret of Cyrrhus", "Theodoret of Cyrrhus: A Syrian in Greek Dress? He was educated in the monastery of St. Euprepius, near Antioch, ordained a deacon by Bishop Porphyrius, and elected bishop of Cyrus in 420 and 423. The narrative is more compressed than in the other historians, and Theodoret often strings documents together, with only brief comments between. Theodoret now composed the Eranistes (see below). In 423 he left as he had been appointed Bishop of Cyrrhus, over a diocese about forty miles square and embracing 800 parishes, but with an insignificant town as its see city. Theodoret’s Religious History recounts the biographies of approximately 30 monks living in Northern Syria in the 4th and 5th centuries. Aware of regional diversities of Aramaic dialects, he recorded that "the Osroënians, the Syrians, the people of the Euphrates, the Palestinians, and the Phoenicians all speak Syriac, but with many differences in pronunciation". From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. , An English translation of the surviving letters is part of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (2 ser., iii. Encouraged by the fact that his mother had been cured of a serious eye complaint and converted to a sober life by Peter the Galatian, an ascetic living in an unoccupied in the locality, Theodoret's parents sought further help from the local holy men, since she had been childless for twelve years. In this, her second book, Theresa Urbainczyk demonstrates how one collection of saints' lives—the Religious History of Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus—both prescribes and describes the relationship between ascetics and the early church. His Church History from *Constantine I to 428 includes many invaluable documents; the Religious History contains biographies of ascetics. Chapter 11, “Theodoret in the Religious History ” (130-142), takes on the hagiographical aspect of Theodoret’s presentation of his own life in the Religious History. My email address is feedback732 at newadvent.org. The following facts about his life are gleaned mainly from his Epistles and his Religious History (Philotheos historia). His Ecclesiastical History takes a strong apologetic and anti-heretical (mainly anti-Arian) tone. He played a pivotal role in many early Byzantine church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. There are many lost works.  He detects Apollinarianism in Cyril's teaching, and declines a "contracting into one" of two natures of the only begotten, as much as a separation into two sons (Epist. With Diodorus and Theodore he was no less hated by the Miaphysites than Nestorius himself, and held by them and their friends as a heretic. CHAPTER I. He is clear and simple in thought and statement; and his merit is to have rescued the exegetical heritage of the school of Antioch as a whole for the Christian Church. Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. 393 – c. 457 AD) was an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). Theodoret, the Church historian says he was consecrated bishop by St. Peter, who was at first bishop of Antioch before going to Rome. To the condemnation of Nestorius he could not assent. PROLOGUE. The writing of a saint's life can be as political as it is pious. 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