Various agents, like wind, water, deforestation, overgrazing by cattle, etc., cause soil erosion. The increased flow of water through local waterways also causes a large increase in the rate of bank erosion. Soil erosion is a naturally occurring process that affects all landforms. Summary 10. 1. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... Ice. If we want to save our soils, we need to understand the different types of erosion that can occur. Longer, steeper slopes (especially those without adequate vegetative cover) are more susceptible to very high rates of erosion during heavy rains than shorter, less steep slopes. Students want to determine the impact of soil erosion from the development of new housing. The geo-statistical approach allows, for the first time, the thorough incorporation into a global soil erosion model of land use and changes in land use, the extent, types, spatial distribution of global croplands and the effects of different regional cropping systems. [30], Surface creep is the slow movement of soil and rock debris by gravity which is usually not perceptible except through extended observation. Because forest canopies are usually higher than this, rain drops can often regain terminal velocity even after striking the canopy. H�+ΤF?�K�Q�Lʤ��*��DdK�%p�@�L9���+�da2�� ��lrU � �+�l`ar��Th���CI��J-'����9@s�sA���^.��ϕ�D�9͵p$�B��9�*G�)d��s#���jp H��� Soil erosion network diagram . Christine_Reis1. Soil erosion is a process of moving soil by water or wind - when the soil particles are detached and transported to a different location. 1 Schematic diagram of soil erosion index model We use following methods for calculating each index value. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, from a letter sent to governors on February 26, 1937. The stream gradient becomes nearly flat, and lateral deposition of sediments becomes important as the stream meanders across the valley floor. The sediment originates primarily from water erosion in the Loess Plateau region of the northwest. In some cases, the slump is caused by water beneath the slope weakening it. Thus crop yields decline and the people must spend income to import foreign fertilizers or clear additional forest. Download Adobe Acrobat Reader. [28] It moves material from higher elevations to lower elevations where other eroding agents such as streams and glaciers can then pick up the material and move it to even lower elevations. 67 2.1 Soil Property Index (KI) There are two ways to calculate the soil property index, KI. Soil erosion may be a slow process that continues relatively unnoticed, or it may occur at an alarming rate causing a serious loss of topsoil. Title: Soil Erosion 1 "A nation that destroys its soils, destroys itself." Raindrops hit bare soil with enough force to break the soil aggregates. These stand-alone soil particles are much smaller, and are more easily transported. [24], Wind erosion is much more severe in arid areas and during times of drought. [18], At extremely high flows, kolks, or vortices are formed by large volumes of rapidly rushing water. 1. Soil erosion can be a slow process that sometimes goes unnoticed, but it can occur at alarming rates in some cases. It shelters the soil from winds, which results in decreased wind erosion, as well as advantageous changes in microclimate. Title: Soil Erosion 1 "A nation that destroys its soils, destroys itself." Concept of different types of wisdom teeth impactions . The model operates using agricultural databases and user inputs to run a series of submodels, including hydrology, land management, soil type, plant growth, decomposition, and erosion. TheJoshua_Mader. Effects of Wind Erosion 6. [104] Terracing is an extremely effective means of erosion control, which has been practiced for thousands of years by people all over the world. Soil erosion is a form of soil degradation where the upper layer of the soil is displaced. Only a minority of areas have good soils, which after clearing are quickly washed away by the heavy rains. 1999. Let us have a detailed look at the causes, effects and prevention of soil erosion. Because most crops grow only in spring and summer, the land lies fallow during the winter. The degree of grazing and intensity of use can create a soil compaction problem and contribute to serious surface runoff. [83], Monitoring and modeling of erosion processes can help people better understand the causes of soil erosion, make predictions of erosion under a range of possible conditions, and plan the implementation of preventative and restorative strategies for erosion. Rain may move soil directly: this is known as 'rainsplash erosion' (or just 'splash erosion'). 2 Objectives . [3], Water and wind erosion are now the two primary causes of land degradation; combined, they are responsible for 84% of degraded acreage. Human activities have increased by 10–50 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. the mid-western USA), rainfall intensity is the primary determinant of erosivity, with higher intensity rainfall generally resulting in more soil erosion by water. Soil erosion is a natural process that can be accelerated by extreme weather events and / or poor land management. Wind Erosion 5. After intense rainfall and runoff events, it can take the form of concentrated flow. The sand and silt components in this diagram are dominated by quartz, with lesser amounts of feldspar and rock fragments, while the clay component is dominated by the clay minerals. Types of Soil Erosion Erosion By Water . the moving of sediment. [55] Much of the sediment carried in runoff from urban areas (especially roads) is highly contaminated with fuel, oil, and other chemicals. Soil may be detached and moved by: water; wind; tillage. Wind erosion requires strong winds, particularly during times of drought when vegetation is sparse and soil is dry (and so is more erodible). [47] Heavy grazing reduces vegetative cover and causes severe soil compaction, both of which increase erosion rates. [14], Bank erosion is the wearing away of the banks of a stream or river. Gardens, Yards – In areas that have been dug up or where grass won’t grow, putting down mulch or allowing fallen leaves to stay on the ground can help protect the soil. It estimates the average annual soil loss A on a plot-sized area as:[88], where R is the rainfall erosivity factor,[89][90] K is the soil erodibility factor,[91] L and S are topographic factors[92] representing length and slope,[93] C is the cover and management factor[94] and P is the support practices factor. [78][79][80][81], Dust from erosion acts to suppress rainfall and changes the sky color from blue to white, which leads to an increase in red sunsets[citation needed]. A reduction in plant growth and subsequent plant residue causes less soil cover, allowing the erosion process to perpetuate and become worse. This is distinguished from changes on the bed of the watercourse, which is referred to as scour. K, the soil erodibility factor, is the soil loss rate per rainfall erosion index unit for the specified soil under Unit Plot conditions; L and S are the slope length and steepness factors in relation to the con-ditions on a unit plot; C, the cover and manage-ment factor, is the ratio of soil loss from an area Rapid river channel migration observed in the Lena River of Siberia is due to thermal erosion, as these portions of the banks are composed of permafrost-cemented non-cohesive materials. Currently, over 3,000 block diagrams are available Attrition3. In some areas of the world (e.g. Plane view of deforestation-induced erosion in Madagascar. One major problem is that the USLE cannot simulate gully erosion, and so erosion from gullies is ignored in any USLE-based assessment of erosion. One of the visible topographical manifestations of a very slow form of such activity is a scree slope. The Midwest Region. The wind and water carry away the topsoil, which is often the soil with the most nutrients, making it difficult for plants to grow well. The removal of vegetation increases the rate of surface erosion. Geology Review 2. ��I8" � q% D#�9'�l��P@5��F�%p �N�$K�4g;�9@sq���2 4W!���H��#���B �;�G���%@�D������� �,�A�_�Csd\ȈO�@s�М)P�Cs�8��ġ�6�b�m�� ̍ BOp&�# �o�o# D"�!��lB�e�!VhN�j����9� �E��d>��J�͵�Q2�⹋�ĶԱ @�����K�D� x��X� 3&����`aJ �5XB�dh������$T�)�s24'�DP�%G�h�� �� I�`�����VNN�ZF Either way, soil erosion has a negative impact on agriculture and on the environment. [59][60], Studies on soil erosion suggest that increased rainfall amounts and intensities will lead to greater rates of soil erosion. Adjectives. Soil erosion rates are expected to change in response to changes in climate for a variety of reasons. We care about it because it can damage both our environment and our economy. These impacts include compaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation, and soil salinity. 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