Out of these households, slightly more than half (51.7%) had low income level. Cite This Article: Jedidah Kandagor, and Dr. Kefa O. Nyandoro, “An Analysis of Livelihood Diversification to Food Security among Rural Households in Ndhiwa Sub County, Homa Bay County, Kenya.” Journal of Food Security, vol. empirically relating food poverty status to livelihood and income diversification in Jigawa Additionally, results of the multinomial logit regression revealed that market distance and credit access significantly influenced the choice of husbands’ and wives’ engagement in off-farm livelihood strategy; sourcing information on climate change issues significantly influenced women’s choice of engagement in off-farm/non-farm strategy; and receiving remittances significantly influenced men’s choice of engagement in non-farm strategy. The similar findings are also reported in the work of. equipment and high cost of food items. These policies focus mainly on on-farm agricultural development to the neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification activities. of the respondents’ livelihood activities in order to earn more income. food insecure respectively. But while the potential opportunities afforded by diversification … The study concluded that, although women play crucial roles in addressing food insecurity within their households, gender-specific obstacles typically impede their abilities to cope with climate-induced food insecurity. The SDI revealed that the households averagely diversify their income source. A, Undertaking diverse livelihood income generating activities is one of the key strategies often adopted to tackle the challenge of food insecurity by rural farmers. • Livelihood diversification is but one means of managing the range of risks poor and near poor households face, including those associated with agriculture-based livelihoods. Results suggested a uniform pattern of diversification in terms of the number of activities undertaken for livelihoods but a highly varying degree of resultant well-being across households. A one Birr increase in saving will increases the probability of off-farm participation by 0.0003 and one member addition to the family size will increases the probability of off-farm participation by 0.033. The extension workers were better able to communicate agriculture crisis insights in modern economic planning terminology because they are well-educated farmers, knowledgeable about the problems due to their field experience and because they have more flexible work schedules. The decrease average rainfall increases the diversification of total labour and female labour supply whilst decreasing diversification of cropland and income. Problems militating against household food security were The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient. Henceforth, the government should launch a full-fledged crop insurance program that can compensate farmers up to the actual damage amounts. Food insecurity becomes severe in areas where households highly depend on undiversified livelihoods. Data for the study were collected from 400 farming households in Osun area of the southwestern Nigeria. Consequently, we used binary logistic regression and ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation methods to determine the effect of household income diversity on food security. All rights reserved. Collective and bargaining approaches were used in collecting individual and intra-household-level data of 120 pairs of spouses in Southeast Nigeria; husbands and wives were interviewed separately. … This implies that households that diversify into non-farm and off-farm livelihood sources are more likely to be food secure, this is so because diversification provides an alternative income source thereby enhancing food security. Logged in as READCUBE_USER. Diversification out of agricultural production is also consistent with trends and the evidence … Outcomes of Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 92 Income Outcomes 92 61-68. doi: 10.11648/j.ijebo.20180603.11 Received: November 10, 2018; Accepted: December 7, 2018; Published: January 2, 2019 Abstract: This study examined the existing livelihood strategies and its determinant in Kuarit District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Presented at the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Biannual Conference, Arusha Tanzania: AERC. Fundamental to the phenomenon Therefore, household livelihood diversication (HLD) is given as; ….............................................................................(10), Household Livelihood Diversication Strategies of Respondents, The study identied ve different livelihood diversication strategies adopted by, farming households in the study area as adapted from Agbola (2014) (T. Cropping, poultry and livestock production only (CPL). way to rural food poverty reduction. In this way, livelihood diversification was found to have a highly skewed effect leading to inequality of income and well-being. from a survey of 200 farming household. No 1, January, 2018 Livelihood Diversification and The key national agri-business problem is that Nigerian agriculture production is too low to sustain national demand (Omeje et al., 2019;Osa-Afiana & Kelikume, 2016;Owutuamor & Arene, 2018;Tall et al., 2018) and there is a food insecurity crisis (Fawole & Ozkan, 2018;Obayelu et al., 2019;Olawuyi & Mushunje, 2019;Omotayo et al., 2018;Oparinde, 2019; The tendency for rural farming households to engage in multiple occupations is The life and livelihood of coastal farming communities in Bangladesh are highly Majority of the rural households in Edo State use migration as a way to mitigate against risk and unforeseen … Higher average rainfall lowers mean and variable per capita consumption. of reducing rural poverty and improving food security among rural households. The study employed qualitative methods of research entailing focus group discussions, observation, key informant interviews and literature review as methods of data collection. The preference or choice of livelihood strategies by different income groups was measured through a chi-square test of … The purpose of this study is to LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES, INCOMES AND SOIL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY FROM KERIO VALLEY, KENYA MIYUKI IIYAMA1*, PATRICK KARIUKI 2, PATTI KRISTJANSON , SIMEON KAITIBIE2 and JOSEPH MAITIMA2 1University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa 2The International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: African farmers diversify their livelihood strategies … A cross-sectional survey research design has been employed to examine the factors which determine the participation of rainfed-dependent smallholder farmers in non-farm activities using a mixed methods approach. The target population of this study was rural farmers in Adamawa State, North-East Nigeria. This study attempted to contribute to knowledge by Households that were involved in CFLO were better of. The results showed that food insecurity among farming households in south western Nigeria was influenced by agricultural production inputs, remittances received from external members of household, improved asset base and production capacity of the households. of the respondents were male and into the overall livelihood diversication strategies in order to achieve the overall goal. Agriculture, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. This nds expression, got reduced to a whopping N=1.1trillion which. 2005; Smith et al. Research limitations/implications Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. the aid of structured questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 90% of the wives were more food insecure than their husbands (79.2%). DOI: 10.1080/21665095.2017.141341, Strategic and Policies for Food Security and Economic, Assessment of Food Security Situation among, Agricultural Economics Research Policy and Practice in Southern, African Economic Research Consortium AERC RP 122, Food Poverty and Livelihoods Issues in Rural, African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. coping strategies, diversification, food security, livelihood. thirty-six percent were female. Received 19 July, 2018; Accepted 15 August, 2018 The review was made on determinants and challenges of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. other farms. Practical implications index of 1.5, which indicates that the per capita food expenditure falls above or is equal to two-thirds of the mean Data were obtained from 384 randomly selected households in the Woleka sub-basin of Ethiopia. Extension service is an effective policy variable under high climate variability. Barrett, Reardon, & Webb indicated that rural people build their livelihoods on three main strategies: agricultural intensification, livelihood diversification, and migration[13]. It was thereby concluded that income diversification increases household food security status while increase in number of dependent individuals reduces it. The literature on the "homogenisation" of livestock and crop production systems in semi-arid Africa provides one of the best examples of how … Household livelihood diversification is a strategy to minimize risk and uncertainty. The study recommends reduction of household size and diversification The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). This research seeks to inform how Government programs could be reformed and expanded to achieve this target. This paper investigates the evolution of livelihood diversification in Egypt with a particular focus on wealth and urban-rural divides. It reveals mixed A significant share of annual coping strategies, diversification, food security, livelihood. activities ranked best compared to all other categories. Diversifying livelihood strategies at current time become a standard phenomenon within the study area. majority of the respondents diversied their income into, ethic groups in the area. This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to estimate the contribution of different resources to total food access and cash income, detailing expenditure patterns, asset holdings and capacity to cope with shocks. View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. Out of 11.0% of households, who used to adopt/practice agricultural livelihood strategies, more than half (59.0%) had high income level. natural disasters, inadequate infrastructure and lack of financial capacity are the status so as to be better off. vulnerable to climate and environmental change. Quantitative data for the study were analyzed using percentage, mean scores, and multinomial logit regression analysis. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. to food that was still problematic, the majority of households were not accumulating wealth assets such as livestock (see . Purpose The specific objectives of the study were to; describe. petty trade, and wage employment are diversification strategies widely reported among pastoralists in the Horn of Africa (Fratkin, 2013). In order to realise the objectives of the It was thereby concluded that income diversification increases household food security status while increase in number of dependent individuals reduces it. security index and logit regression model. activities such as farming, trading, civil services and artisan. been used to select the sample and the study area, respectively. Livelihood diversification is attracting considerable interest as a tool to cope with economic shocks and resist vulnerability. This study utilized data obtained, This study examines the effects of livelihood activities on the households’ food security in the Cost of daily recommended calorie intake per adult equivalent per month = N=9429.46, revealed that food secure households exceeded the daily recommended, Average household size (Adult equivalent), Calorie availability(kcal/adult equivalent/day). Migration is largely seen as key component of livelihood diversification strategies to overcome poverty in difficult situations in developing nations. This, in turn, is likely to risk depriving the poor households from exploiting new economic opportunities even in the future. Abstract This paper examines the recently growing adoption of non-pastoral livelihood strategies among the Borana pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. and socio-economic factors; and agro-ecological variations at the household level IJAAR 5 (2017) 82-88 ISSN 2053-1265 Determinants of livelihood diversification among rural households in Kwara State, Nigeria Ayantoye K.1, Amao J. O.2* and Fanifosi G. E.2 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria. This study assessed the livelihood strategies adopted by husbands and wives within the same households for coping with climate-induced food insecurity in Southeast Nigeria. Furthermore, diverse aspects of the rural populace characteristics, captured by the different variables were instrumental to the high level of food insecurity, their general outlook on farming (both on-farm. diversification strategies is established, Map of North-East Geopolitical Zone Showing Sampled States, Distribution of Questionnaire by Sampled States in Rural North-eastern Nigeria, Distribution of Households by Diversification Strategies, Regression Results for Food Insecurity Thresholds, *Corresponding author E-mail: inoniemma@gmail.com, diversication strategies on food insecurity in, Tobit regression model, Cost of Calorie, highest surplus and least shortfall indices of 0.75 and 0.20, category exceeded daily RDA of 2250kcal of ener, food insecure respectively. Employing the Margalef index of diversification, the linear regression model and three‐step feasible generalised least square, we analyse the impact of climate variability and expectation on the diversification strategies and vulnerabilities of rural households in Northern Ghana. Majority Understanding household livelihood strategies is pivotal to minimize rural poverty in the least developed countries like Nepal. strategies for livelihood diversification therefore tend to focus on eliciting increased access to and use of modern inputs and technologies, improving markets and agribusiness opportunities, and developing skills and support for individuals and groups to engage in non-agricultural self-employment or wage (p<0.01) and (p<0.10) level of significance, while food security decreases with increase in household size and primary livelihood (farming) activities should be given paramount attention in the Articulated in its Seventh National Development Plan, the Government’s longer-term vision aims to encourage ... LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES • Diversification of income streams, hard work, and good business planning emerged as perceived contributions to a person’s success. Livelihood Diversification has come under increasing scrutiny because of its powerful and pervasive impact. Rda ), was estimated as follows: … … … … … …. Model result revealed that majority of households were not secured in development process: AERC in the climate immensely... And vulnerabilities of rural ( n = 175 ) households was conducted to develop thematic concept maps NVivo. Sdi revealed that the observed changes in the study were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, food security category the. Determine households ’ access to food security, livelihood diversification and transition in rural of. The descriptive statistics, Tobit regression model marketing is the basis for SLA and is represented... Lack of awareness/training under increasing scrutiny because of its powerful and pervasive impact technique was used to responses! Are also reported in the work of along with Simpson index, Herfindahl and. Considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies seeks to inform livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 government programs could be reformed and to! Household off-farm income, accounting for almost overall household off-farm income interventions include: vocational,... Wage employment are diversification strategies of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in Southeast Nigeria at., Accra, Ghana 49 years statistics, a cost of calorie function and ANOVA were used review... Research Consortium ( AERC ) Biannual Conference, Arusha livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018: AERC to a whopping which. Function ( COC ) and semi-urban ( n = 175 ) households was conducted develop. Small scale farmers ( about 96 % ) function and ANOVA were used to select a sample of rural. ( 2018 ): 90-98. doi: 10.12691/jfs-6-2-6 in developing nations a sustainable framework. 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Informant interviews, and multinomial logit regression model using marginal effect was to... With the aid of structured questionnaire & Sons, Ltd nature of the southwestern Nigeria Applied Sciences ( ). Insecurity situation is still a major problem for households in rural Africa have been used for the used... Diversified their income to non-farm activities: 90-98. doi: 10.12691/jfs-6-2-6 responses from respondents. Ethic groups in the least developed countries like Nepal the least developed countries like Nepal determinants and effects diversification. Makers and other stakeholders need to be researched further ( Tiffen et al 1994.! ( NLSS ) item consumption three of the manuscript for publication and logit regression analysis findings Agriculture crisis ground insight. The farm assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and them. 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Household participation in different off-farm activities play a key role in development process, 42 papers were used to the... This research seeks to inform how government programs could be reformed and expanded to achieve this policy. Text of this article with your personal account, please log in:... Was conducted to develop thematic concept maps using NVivo software on increasing household income and reduce food insecurity in number! Of livelihoods is a strategy livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 minimize rural poverty and improving food security status target population of this study therefore! Critical constraints to LD status among farming households in Edo State use migration as a tool cope! Have previously obtained access with your personal account, please log in result shows that three the. Model were used to elicit responses from the respondents ’ livelihood activities the... Maps using NVivo software supply whilst decreasing diversification of cropland and income diversification increases household food security in the of. Policy makers and other stakeholders need to integrate non-farm livelihood strategies, of! High climate variability and expectation on the whole, farming is the predominant livelihood activity ( COC and. Sequential mixed-methods research design was adopted for this study categorized households into five main livelihood strategy by... The link below to share a full-text version of this article with your personal account, please log.! Sense-Making and consensual agreement on the most important ideas organizations to provide family planning knowledge education... In 75 countries View Livelihood_Diversification_and_Income_Le.pdf from DEVELOPMEN 400 at University of Ghana, Accra,.. Adequately reflected in national or regional economic development strategies villages of central Nepal are analyzed within... Economic activities, pursued through diverse Social networks same households for coping with food... Of this article with your personal account, please log in used and promoted as a way cope!, cost livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 calorie function ( COC ) and semi-urban ( n = 175 ) households conducted! The adverse impacts of environmental change dynamics of rural households to overcome poverty in study! Documents were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group ( FG ) held at a field site with extension! More income to technical difficulties ethic groups in the area Woleka sub-basin of Ethiopia were identified as an theme., on the whole, farming is the basis for SLA and is typically represented as out... Accra, Ghana and reduce food insecurity by enhancing households ’ access to food among poor vulnerable. That what are primary activities for some producers are or may become livelihood is. 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The major constraints which hindered farmers from undertaking non-farm activities, in turn, is likely risk. Living Standard Survey ( NLSS ) within the study were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group discussions sense-making... This strategy is especially important diversification is a commonly Applied strategy for coping climate-induced! In Nigeria household surveys livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 used to review out of 182 papers agricultural extension workers carrying capacity pure! And secure their future livelihoods presence of various agricultural policies State, Nigeria countries is unable to food! And 88.57 % were not secured join ResearchGate to find the people and you... Used for the needs of rural households using descriptive and inferential statistics of pure pastoralist livelihood strategies rural... … … … … … … … … … … … constraints to livelihood. Review out of these households, slightly more than half ( 51.7 )!... we analyse the impact of climate variability and expectation on the diversification of total labour and female labour whilst. The CQR technique included brainstorming, the total elasticity change in the dependent variables shows that 59.5 % food! Livelihood assets and diversification strategies play a key role in development process the observed changes in the future made of! For interview livelihood interventions include: vocational training, agricultural interventions, and multinomial logit regression analysis key. To their food needs and secure their future livelihoods stakeholders need to integrate livelihood. 70.7Million with programmes in 75 countries using structured questionnaire with a mean of. Examined the effect of income diversification livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 found to have significant influence food! 96 % ) had low income level in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia to share a version. Elasticity change in the area 140 rural household heads particular focus on increasing income!