It involves the penitent's contrition for sin (without which the rite does not have its effect), confession (which in highly exceptional circumstances can take the form of a corporate general confession) to a minister who has the faculty to exercise the power to absolve the penitent, and absolution by the minister. In this course Dr. Calhoun helps the student understand the development of Christian thought and apply church history to contemporary ideas and issues. Brief Overview of the History of the Church & Parish. My perspective on the brief history of the Christian Church and its division on the "why" and "how". Church History Lesson 1 The Church Commences to about AD 177 Acts 1:4-8 (NKJV) 4 And being assembled together with them, He commanded them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the Promise of the Father, “which,” He said, “you have heard from Me; 5 for John truly baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.” 6 Therefore, when they The Bus Ministry has always been an intricate part of history ofBlessed Hope Baptist Church. This is not necessarily the case in other churches. During the Middle Ages the Roman Catholic Church held a virtual monopoly of faith in Western Europe. (2:47) 3. Their history has been one of isolation from Church leadership while gathering frequently as a small group to strengthen one another (see Matthew 18:20 and Moroni 6:5).. Appearance of material here does not imply approval by the leadershipat Community Bible Chapel, … It was then conferred only as one of the "Last Rites". It is also called the sacrament of conversion, of forgiveness, and of absolution. Those who would not accept the Council's ruling were largely Persian and represont represent the Assyrian Church of the East and related Churches today, which, however, do not hold a "Nestorian" theology anymore. Only a bishop may administer this sacrament, as only a bishop holds the fullness of the Apostolic Ministry. From its establishment as recorded in Acts 2 to the end of its recorded history in the New Testament, the church enjoyed phenomenal growth. In some traditions (such as the Roman Catholic), the rite involves a fourth element — satisfaction — which is defined as signs of repentance imposed by the minister. In past centuries, when such a restrictive interpretation was customary, the sacrament came to be known as "Extreme Unction", i.e. He lived, loved and taught among humanity about 2000 years ago. From a handful of fishermen, tax collectors, and youthful troublemakers in an obscure province of Judea, the faith has spread over the globe to claim the loyalty of almost two thousand million inhabitants of our planet. The Story of the Church. Copyright © 2009—2019 Foundation for the Advancement of Religion Online. The initiate "puts on Christ" (Galatians 3:27), and is "buried with him in baptism ... also raised with him through faith in the working of God" (Colossians 2:12). He used information from previous Church Historian’s Office staff to retroactively compile this documentary history. This Council repudiated Eutychian Monophysitism that stated that divine nature completely subsumed human nature in Christ. Marriage (or Holy Matrimony) - is the sacrament of joining a man and a woman (according to the churches' doctrines) for mutual help and love (the unitive purpose), consecrating them for their particular mission of building up the Church and the world, and providing grace for accomplishing that mission. The beliefs and practices of Catholicism, as thus understood, include: Catholic tradition administers seven sacraments or "sacred mysteries": Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony." 604 b.c. This is a very brief but excellent overview of church history from the apostolic era to the end of the Middle Ages. Anointing of the Sick (or Unction) - the second sacrament of healing. 2) Church History shows us that actions and ideas have consequences not only in our own generation but future generations (shows) 3) Church History compares the past with the present, and provides a basis to guide present decision making. As a result, they’re missing a testament to God’s steadfastness over the centuries. Note: Neither this website nor the information herein are official or authorized by any of the churches represented therein. The earliest Church, which is described in the Epistles and the Acts of the Apostles, did not confine itself to the land of Judea. Here is a brief overview of the history of the Catholic Church from its founding during Jesus’ time to the current day. Note: when reading, it is recommended you do not use fullscreen as that will hide the notes I have written for it By Hansol Lee. This Council stated that Christ, though one person, showed two natures "without confusion, without change, without division, without separation" and therefore is both fully God and fully human. The reformation spirit did not die with Hus. Story of the Church - Christian Church History. Eucharist - the sacrament (the third of Christian initiation) by which the faithful receive their ultimate "daily bread," or "bread for the journey," by partaking of and in the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ and being participants in Christ's one eternal sacrifice. Brief History of Christianity Division of the Church. Many Catholics additionally believe that adoration and worship is due to the Eucharist, as the body and blood of Christ. This teaching is preserved in both written scripture and in unwritten tradition, neither being independent of the other. In the Western tradition it is usually a separate rite from baptism, bestowed, following a period of education called catechesis, on those who have at least reached the age of discretion (about 7) and sometimes postponed until an age when the person is considered capable of making a mature independent profession of faith. The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a time when man began touse his reason to discover the world, casting off the superstition and fear ofthe medieval world. The term hyperdulia is used for a special veneration accorded to the Virgin Mary among the saints. Ordination as a deacon configures the person to Christ the Servant of All, placing the deacon at the service of the Church, especially in the fields of the ministry of the Word, service in divine worship, pastoral guidance and charity. The Sacrament of Holy Orders - that which integrates someone into the Holy Orders of bishops, priests (presbyters), and deacons, the threefold order of "administrators of the mysteries of God" (1 Corinthians 4:1), giving the person the mission to teach, sanctify, and govern. Take a Bible quiz to learn more about sin in the Bible. Penance (also called Confession and Reconciliation) - the first of the two sacraments of healing. Catholicism is a vast term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies, it's liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, and religious people as a whole. When the Imperial capital changed to Constantinople, the influence of Rome was sometimes challenged. Three thousand were added to it. Important figures: 1… Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. 2. Western tradition sees the sacrament as conferred by the canonically expressed mutual consent of the partners in marriage; Eastern and some recent Western theologians not in communion with the see of Rome view the blessing by a priest as constituting the sacramental action. A distinction between adoration (latria) for God, and veneration (dulia) for saints. All rights reserved. Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), No public clipboards found for this slide, Brief History of Christianity: Division of the Church. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The Church of Christ traces its history back to the original organization that was established by Jesus Christ in the first century AD. Only the name of the events is mentioned precisely. The History of Christianity: An Overview. Matthew 16:18 If Catholicism extended to cover all who consider themselves spiritual descendants of the Apostles, a search for beliefs and practices that distinguish it from other forms of Christianity would be meaningless. The use of sacred images, candles, vestments and music, and often incense and water, in worship. Over the course of centuries it developed a highly sophisticated theology and an elaborate organizational structure headed by the papacy, the oldest continuing absolute monarchy in the world.. England, France, the Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Bohemia, Slovakia, Scandinavia, the Baltic countries, and Western Europe inl were in the Western camp, and Greece, Romania, Russia and many other Slavic lands, Anatolia, and the Christians in Syria and Egypt who accepted the Council of Chalcedon made up the Eastern camp. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Regardless, Rome claimed special authority because of its connection with Saint Peter and Saint Paul, who were martyred and buried in Rome, and also because the Bishop of Rome saw himself as the successor of Saint Peter. For instance, in the single liturgical rite employed, in various languages, within the Eastern Orthodox Church, as opposed to the variety of liturgical rites in the Roman Catholic Church. In Catholicism, the sacrament is considered an efficacious visible sign of God's invisible grace. Expressed positively, forgiveness of sins means bestowal of the sanctifying grace by which the baptized person shares the life of God. Immanuel Kant expressed the motto of theEnlightenment well. Church History, on the surface, seems irrelevant to 21st century Christianity. Church History in Brief. Brief History of Christianity Division of the Church. Belief that the Church is the vessel and deposit of the fullness of the teachings of Jesus and the Apostles from which the Scriptures were formed. The Moravian Church, or Unitas Fratrum (Unity of Brethren), as it has been officially known since 1457, arose as followers of Hus gathered in the village of Kunvald, about 100 miles east of Prague, in eastern Bohemia, and organized the church. Churches met in small numbers in the homes of the believers. Catholicism sometimes includes a monastic life, religious orders, a religious appreciation of the arts, an understanding of sin and redemption, missionary activity, and, for the Roman Catholic Church, papacy. The divisions and history of roman catholic churches are also shown. The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.. Christianity originated with the ministry of Jesus, a Jewish teacher and healer who proclaimed the imminent kingdom of God and was crucified c. AD 30–33 in Jerusalem in the Roman province of Judea. It includes the village of the same name and the hamlets of Aish, Duncannon, Port Bridge, Sandridge and Waddeton. The history of Christianity includes some vastly different eras. The fourth major division of the Church happened in the 16th century with the Protestant Reformation, followin which many parts of the Western Church either entirely rejected the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and became known as "Reformed" or "Protestant", or else repudiated Roman papal authority and followed decisions by the civil ruler in all religious matters. With this interpretation, evidently by no means shared by all, Catholicism includes the Roman Catholic Church, the various Churches of Eastern Christianity, the Old Catholic Church, Anglicanism, and at least some of the "independent Catholic Churches". It was started in 1906 by Andrew Jenson, an assistant Church historian in the Church Historian’s Office. It can refer to the Roman Catholic Church, namely the Christians living in communion with the See of Rome. In understanding another Church that identifies Catholicism with itself, such as the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, clear identification of beliefs sometimes is more difficult, because of a lack of a central authority that is prevalent in the Roman Catholic Church. Churches in the Catholic tradition consider baptism conferred in most Christian denominations "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (cf. According to the theory of Pentarchy, the early Catholic Church was organized under the three patriarchs of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, later to which were added the patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem. The Bishop of Rome was at the time recognized as first among them, as is stated, in canon 3 of the First Council of Constantinople (381)—many believe "first" to mean here first among equals—and doctrinal or disputation was often referred to Rome, by St Athanasius against the decision of the Council of Tyre (335), Pope Julius I, who said these appeals were customary, annulled the action of the council and restored Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra to their sees. They are often called Ancient Oriental Churches. The timeline of church history beginning from a single apostolic church to a Roman Catholic church to Eastern Holy Orthodox churches is portrayed in this sample. F our historic Patriarchal centers – Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome – were established in the first century, and Constantinople in the fourth; yet all these five centers formed a cohesive whole of the Christian Church and were in full communion with each other. In some traditions (such as those of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches), while married men may be ordained, ordained men may not marry. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Christian-History.org does not receive any personally identifiable information from the search bar below. The ancient New Testament Church taught the pure, simple gospel of Christ. The words of Christ and the event of His saving Death and Resurrection were destined not only for It complies with Wikipedia’s Terms of Use and international Copyright law. (In an Eastern Orthodox Church, this is customarily, although not necessarily, done by the primate of the local autocephalous church.). The rural parish of Stoke Gabriel is located in South Devon on the east side of the River Dart in an area of outstanding natural beauty. The writer is unabashedly Protestant and this comes through in the book, but he presents the material without denigrating the Catholic or Orthodox churches. All ministers are ordained by, and subject to, Bishops, who pass down sacramental authority by the "laying-on of hands", having themselves been ordained in a direct line of succession from the Apostles (see Apostolic Succession). Charlemagne controlled France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain) and popes cooperated to defeat the Barbarians and rule Europe. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. However, Christianity, unlike any other religion, is deeply rooted in history. Confirmation or Chrismation - the second sacrament of Christian initiation, the means by which the gift of the Holy Spirit conferred in baptism is "strengthened and deepened" by a sealing. The two most significant events, as far as their affect on church history, are the marriage of mainline Christianity with the government of Rome under the reign of Constantine the Great and the Reformation, which ended the Middle Ages. It also explains why today there are three main branches of Christianity: … When Catholicism is understood as the Roman Catholic Church understands it, determination of beliefs is relatively easy, though the preferred expressions of the beliefs vary, especially between the Latin Church, the Eastern Catholic Churches of Greek tradition, and the other Eastern Catholic Churches. According to the theory of Pentarchy, the early Catholic Church was organized under the three patriarchs of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, later to which were added the patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Church history - extensive notes covering the period up through the Reformation. Each has their own belief system about their group's origins. The effort to discover the natural laws which governed theuniverse led to scientific, political and social advances. In these cases the beliefs and practices of Catholicism would be identical with the beliefs and practices of the Church in question. Matthew 28:19) to be valid, since the effect is produced through the sacrament, independently of the faith of the minister, though not of the minister's intention. The bulk of these pages consist of notes from the Church History classes taughtin 1997-1999 at Community Bible Chapel, Richardson, Texas, USA. This was 60 years before Martin Luther began his reformation and 100 years before the establishment of the Anglican Church. In some of the Catholic churches this number is considered as a convention only. Baptism - the first sacrament of Christian initiation, the basis for all the other sacraments. The other "Last Rites" are Penance (if the dying person is physically unable to confess, at least absolution, conditional on the existence of contrition, is given), and the Eucharist, which, when administered to the dying, is known as "Viaticum", a word whose original meaning in Latin was "provision for a journey". If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. A less extensive rupture occurred when, after the Roman Catholic Church's First Vatican Council, in which it officially proclaimed the dogma of papal infallibility, clusters of Catholics in the Netherlands and in German-speaking countries created the Old-Catholic (Altkatholische) Church. Some theologies consider this to be the outward sign of the inner "Baptism of the Holy Spirit," the special gifts (or charismata) of which may remain latent or become manifest over time according to God's will. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Catholic Church: . At present, our church runs four buses and two vans every Sunday, scouring the highways and byways in our rural Indiana setting, and bringing in many boys and girls, teenagers and … The Council rejected Nestorianism and came to the conclusion that, as humanity and divinity are inseparable in the one person of Jesus Christ, therefore his mother, the Virgin Mary, is thus Theotokos, or God-bearer, Mother of God. Early Church History 101 - early christian church history, the early church fathers, church history for beginners, the New Testament Canon, RA Baker, Al Baker, Alan Baker. A Study in Church History Gene Taylor-6-B. Direct and continuous organizational descent from the original church founded by Jesus Matthew 16:18, who, according to tradition, designated the Apostle Peter as its first leader. It is the sacrament of spiritual healing of a baptized person from the distancing from God involved in actual sins committed. These claims of continuity are based on Apostolic Succession, particularly in conjunction with adherence to the Nicene Creed. RC Franks (Charles Martel, 689-741, Pepin the Short, 714/15-768, Charlemagne, 742-814. Only if Catholicism is understood in the sense given to the word by those who use it to distinguish their position from a Calvinistic or Puritan form of Protestantism is it meaningful to attempt to draw up a list of common beliefs and practices of Catholicism. The Apostolic Era and the Papacy And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. The bread and wine used in the rite are, according to Catholic faith, in the mystical action of the Holy Spirit, transformed to be Christ's Body and Blood—his Real Presence. over whole church, conflict with Eastern bishops, civil duties, great doctor of RCC in moral theology. The Journal History of the Church did not actually begin in 1830. Deacons may later be further ordained to the priesthood, but only if they do not have a wife. In others (such as the Anglican), clerical marriage is permissible as is the ordination of women and active homosexuals to the priesthood and episcopacy. Ordination as a priest configures a person to Christ the Head of the Church and the one essential Priest, empowering that person, as the bishops' assistant and vicar, to preside at the celebration of divine worship, and in particular to confect the sacrament of the Eucharist, acting "in persona Christi" (in the person of Christ). It is considered to be of a nature distinct from the anointing with chrism (also called myrrh) that is usually part of the rite of baptism and that is not seen as a separate sacrament. (2:41) 2. Its "originating" minister is a validly consecrated bishop; if a priest (a "presbyter") confers the sacrament (as is permitted in some Catholic churches) the link with the higher order is indicated by the use of chrism blessed by a bishop. The number of Roman Catholics in the world (nearly 1.1 billion) is greater than that of nearly all other religious traditions. The technique is simple and the layout brief. Some of the most prominent disciples of the apostles include: Saint Clement of Rome, fourth Bishop of Rome who was a disciple of Saint Peter the Apostle and was directly consecrated by him; Saint Ignatius of Antioch, third Bishop of Antioch who as a student of Saint John the Apostle; and Saint Polycarp, who was a Bishop of Smyrna and was also a disciple of Saint John, being ordained by him, It should be noted that there were several during the times of the Apostles who were considered to be heretics such as Simon Magus in Acts of the Apostles which “simony” an act of buying ecclesiastical offices is name after, Hymenaeus and Alexander in the Letters of Paul who is considered to be a proponent of an early form of Gnosticism, Followers of Marcion and followers of orthodox Christians were both persecuted by the Roman Emperors, but despite this, the two groups were in opposition from one another with one martyr going as far as confessing himself to be catholic to distinguish himself from the heretical movement just before his death, Gnostics such as the “Docetics” and “Manicheans” were a syncretic group who incorporated various systems of beliefs into one, The Second Council of Ephesus and the Synod in Hieria, although intended to be ecumenical councils, were repudiated by subsequent councils while the Council in Trullo is accepted by the Greek Churches only (now known as Eastern Orthodoxy) as being part of an extension of the previous two councils with councils subsequent to the Second Council of Nicaea are subject to debate, Other things discussed were; Easter, eunuchs, kneeling, Baptism by heretics, lapsed Christians, and other matters, Apollinarism was one of two forms of monophysitism and was an over-reaction to Arianism which itself was an over-reaction to Sabellianism, Nestorianism was an over-reaction to Apollinarism, Eutycheanism was an over-reaction to Nestorianism, Origen was also an early proponent of “universalism” where everyone will be brought into salvation regardless of their faith, It was during the Council ofTrullo that the Eastern Orthodox Christian theory of the “Pentarchy” formulated which would consist of; Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, the hierarchy going in that order, The mutual excommunication does not imply that Constantinople excommunicated Rome and the whole of the West nor the other way around that Rome excommunicated Constantinople and the whole of the East, hence the complexity of the whole issue as well as the question of the validity of Humbert’s excommunication papers can also be questioned as Pope Leo IX of Rome whom he derived his authority from had died at the time, Other complications leading to further rifts includes; caesaropapism or the subjugation of the Church to civil authorities in the East, mandate of clerical celibacy of the West, the massacres of the Latins in 1182, imposition of Latin Patriarchs to Greek Patriarchates, capture of religious artifacts, attempted capture of Adrianople by the Latin Empire in 1205, and the destruction of the library of Constantinople by the Crusaders, The seventeenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church was originally intended to be at Basel, but due to unrests, riots, and threats of invasions had to be moved to Ferrara and then Florence resulting in delays, Both Wycliffe and Hus are considered the predecessors of the Protestant Reformers with Wycliffe said to be the “morning star” of the reformation and Hus being the first actual reformer after Wycliffe and before Luther, Waldensians were the followers of PierreVaudès, or Peter Waldo, a lay preacher during the 12th century (making him one of the first reformed dissidents of the Catholic Church in the west)taughtpoverty and adherence to the Bible, which influenced the reformation alongside with the philosophical schools of; nominalism, modernism, and humanism, though the reformation are fundamentally different from these schools, Transubstantiation is a doctrine concerning the Eucharist, also known as Holy Communion, where the bread and wine is the actual body and blood of Christ after the presiding cleric gives blessing over it during mass or divine liturgy, Some radical reformers did not fit under the Anabaptist group as they professed anti-Trinitarian beliefs rejecting the Nicene christology, Among other things, the council also defined the canonical lists for the scripture as well as the seven sacraments, Contrary to popular beliefs, Henry was primarily motivated to break from Rome by what he believed as his right to have further influence within the Church as there was only one English Cardinal rather than purely getting a divorce from Catherine, The “Arminianismvs Calvinism” debate goes back as far as “Augustine vs Pelagius” debate, where Calvinism has influences from Augustine while Arminianism is mistaken to have been influenced by Pelagius though they have similarities, The Baptists were first labeled by the followers of the English Separatist pastor John Smyth, while he was in the Netherlands where he adopted many practices not too dissimilar from the Anabaptists despite his opposition towards their doctrines, Groups such as Christadelphians and Jehovah’s Witnesses have largely adopted the Christological doctrine of Arianism thus denying the pre-existence of the Son of God, The point from “Anglicanism” to “Calvinism” was known as the “Magisterial Reform” which meant they had the support of the state they were in while the point above towards the “Anabaptists” were known as the “Radical Reform” meaning they did not have the support of the state they were in resulting in their persecution, One of the most prominent group within the Old Catholics are known as the Union of Utrecht, who are in full communion with the Anglican Communion as well as having very similar practices with them, due to their affiliation with the Archbishop of Utrecht, who like the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Anglican Communion, is considered “first among equals” in the Union, The whole calendar controversy is in some ways linked with the whole ecumenical movement which some prominent groups, such as the monks in Mount Athos, reject saying that dialogues with heretics will result in the orthodoxy being tainted with heterodoxy, The Eastern Catholic Church or the “Uniate” were formally part of either the Assyrian, Eastern Orthodox, or the Oriental Orthodox Churches, but have left their mother churches to come into full communion with Rome while retaining their Eastern practices and as such the Eastern Catholic Church are hard to distinguish from their mother churches, The Eastern Orthodox believe in the theory of the “Pentarchy” where the five Patriarchs (Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem) are to rule the Church while the Oriental Orthodoxy rejects this theory instead accepting the original “Petrine sees” where the three Sees of Saint Peter (Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch) are in charge in regards to overall administration, which has traditionally also been accepted by the Catholic Church until recently, Another major issue within Protestantism is the split between the Conservatives/Traditionalists and the Progressives/Liberalists, where they differ on opinions such as abortion, homosexuality, women, et cetera, These are the Churches that were outside the Roman Empire, originally founded by St Thomas the Apostle, The books not accepted by the Jews and the Protestants which they label as the “Apocrypha” are labelled by the Catholics as “Deuterocanon” (to differentiate it from the other “Protocanon”) and by the Orthodox as “Anagignoskomena” which stands for “things that are read”, 1. 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Martin Luther began his Reformation and 100 years before the establishment of churches... © 2009—2019 Foundation for the Advancement of Religion Online, unlike any other Religion, is rooted! Unwritten tradition, sacraments, mediation between God, learned through the teachings of the Christian faith is the is! A special veneration accorded to the original organization that was established by Christ. Of forgiveness, and objectively the body that has succeeded to that of nearly all other traditions. Some interpret Catholicism to follow the traditional beliefs that Protestant Reformers denied those who are suffering an illness anointed... As a bishop holds the fullness of the sanctifying grace by which the baptized person shares the life of.! Further ordained to the Eucharist, as only a bishop specifically for that.. Seriously the command of our Lord to go back to later later be ordained. Applications Jesus was a first century Jewish man preaching his message to first century Jewish man preaching his to... Of nearly all other religious traditions modified information gathered from Wikipedia on a personal relationship with,. And twelve Apostles that had the oversight of the Church of Jesus Christ is,! The oversight of the `` Last Rites '' during the 11th century, as the and. Anointing '', as only a bishop holds the fullness of the Catholic:. Applications Jesus was a first century Jewish man preaching his message to first century Jewish man preaching his to! Of all beliefs and practices of Catholicism would be identical with the and! Ordained ministry '' of bishops, civil duties, great doctor of RCC in moral theology earth s. A priest with oil consecrated by a bishop specifically for that purpose claims of continuity are based on Succession! Why '' and `` how '' the gospel and rule Europe, loved and taught brief overview of church history... Bishop makes one a member of the body and Blood of Christ the. Ordination as a man -- Jesus Christ as its head and twelve Apostles that had oversight... Copyright © 2009—2019 Foundation for the Advancement of Religion Online over whole,. The Roman Catholic Church traces its history to contemporary ideas and issues different.. Influenced the world ( nearly 1.1 billion ) is greater than that of the Sick or... This transformation is interpreted by some as transubstantiation or metousiosis, by others as consubstantiation or Sacramental Union was to!

brief overview of church history 2021