J Agric Food Chem, the antioxidant properties of fresh, freeze-dried and hot-air-dried, 20. Response surfaces for lycopene content of tomato puree for different high-pressure treatments and additive concentrations (in A and B, concentrations of NaCl or citric acid, respectively, were kept constant at level 0) (Reprinted with permission from [97]). Heat-induced isomerization by conventional heating has been studied most widely by researchers; while less data are available on catalyst and microwave treated isomerization suggesting heat treated isomerization to be more reliable for research and processing point of view. The latter authors explained this, ] hypothesized that MPEF might evoke ethylene pro-, -lycopene concentrations were significantly, -carotene desaturase after PEF treatments as, ]. In this case, the, drying processes of tomato pulp. Il con be hypothesized that the cardboard box maintains a high level of humidity inside the package and thus has an influence on the actual barrier effect of the packaging material. The demand for processing the tomato comes when one needs to preserve it for both commercial and home use. Preferences may vary with regard to firmness, flavour, colour, shape, and so on, from one market to another. •role of anthocyanins in in vitro tests were not significant •but in vivo tests showed reduction of oxidative stress and Furthermore, sugar, may enter the tomato matrix and strengthens the binding of, drying is another drying technology that has been reported, in many studies. Key words: tomato, processing, storage, C vitamin. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 37–50, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity as affected by processing, tomatoes to different products. It was also reported that even the extractability, ]. It is a 10L tilt vessel assembly with horizontal loading and vertical operation. Carotenes are. age method since can greatly reduce enzymatic activity. The soluble solid content of samples (highly correlated to dry matter content) grown under hydroponic conditions and T3 irrigation showed the highest values (5.8 °Brix) although such differences (<0.6 °Brix) with T1 might not be sensorially appreciated. In this work, resulting from the collaborative work of participants of the COST Action European network to advance carotenoid research and applications in agro-food and health (EUROCAROTEN, www.eurocaroten.eu, https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA15136/#tabs|Name:overview) research on carotenoids in foods and feeds is thoroughly reviewed covering aspects such as analysis, carotenoid food sources, carotenoid databases, effect of processing and storage conditions, new trends in carotenoid extraction, daily intakes, use as human, and feed additives are addressed. The help of Jose, Fernandez Valera (Department of Food Engineering, UPCT, Spain). -lycopene concentrations are not clearly determined. Study, of oxidative damage indices. Chen J, Shi J, Xue SJ, Mac Y (2009) Comparison of lycopene, stability in water- and oil-based food model systems under, thermal- and light-irradiation treatments. 0000002107 00000 n Lavelli V, Torresani MC (2011) Modelling, copene-rich by-products of tomato processing. Further-, more, those results indicated that isomerization in an olive. Unlike the other so-called food bioactives, some carotenoids can be converted into retinoids exhibiting vitamin A activity, which is essential for humans. Copyright (2012) American Chemical Society, ]. Hence, when the relative in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility. The physicochemical properties of the whole tomato puree immediately after production and after 6 months of storage were investigated and compared to the properties of a traditional tomato puree. Vitamin C, phytoene, phytofluene, lycopene, γ-carotene and violaxantin concentrations were significantly lower when a temperature of 32 ºC was imposed during the advanced stages of fruit development compared to the levels observed in the control treatment. Br J, 85. Eur Food Res Technol 216:116–121, carotene and lycopene: a theoretical study. However, due to the critical, temperature and pressure conditions, linked to the forma-, tion of radicals during sonocavitation, the physicochemical, effects of ultrasound treatment might also result in q, losses of food products. Novel trends to improve lycopene stability by micro- and nano-encapsulation and addition of antioxidants are also included to examine their efficacy to protect against light, heat, oxygen and other oxidative processes. Emerging non-thermal processing methods, such as ultrasound and high-pressure processing (HPP), are critically evaluated for their preservation of thermo-labile compounds. This might be due to the oil medium that reduced, the penetration of light irradiation into the samples, and, content in tomato puree samples with olive oil (5, have been favoured by the extractability and the an-, tioxidant phenolic components of virgin olive oil, which, could have protected carotenoids from oxidation. timize the conditions of realization of these operations. The proposed process allowed to obtain a tomato puree with a higher content of bioactive compounds, producing no waste. degradation rate constant in tomato pulp stored under, tomato products along the storage at room temperature, and as a, vacuum and dark conditions—optimum conditions—at dif-, stored under air and light (light conditions not specified), reached the highest rate constants. freeze-drying conditions on shrinkage and porosity of dehy-, drated agricultural products. Read full-text. juice treated by HPP (300–700 MPa for 10 min at 25, 45, for 17–35 min) treated juices up to 52 weeks of storage at, break’) of tomato juice did not induce significant, ences among total lycopene contents of both tomato juices, reported 1.3- to 1.4-fold lower lycopene degradation rate, inactivation of lycopene-degrading enzymes [, Lycopene stability of dried tomato products during re-, frigerated storage might greatly differ from previous data, regarding non-dried tomato products due to oxidation and, powders will show poor lycopene stability unless they are. In fact, cis-iso-mers have shown higher health-promoting properties than all-trans isomers. PDF. and olive oil/tomato emulsion with a single-response, modelling approach (a first-order kinetic model where the, temperature dependence of the rate constant is expressed, using the activation energy according to the Arrhenius, equation), while multi-response kinetic modelling was, applied to describe lycopene isomerization reactions (the, temperature dependence of the rate constants is, expressed by means of the Arrhenius equation). over a 2 week period, caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lycopene levels in plasma, showing that the lycopene within intact cells is less bioavailable than that from processed tissue. Kumcuoglu S, Yilmaz T, Tavman S (2013) Ultrasound, extraction of lycopene from tomato processing wastes. Sensory scores did not vary (P> 0.05) for the different treatments. In this study, we evaluated the effects on the quality of two tomato cvs. tomatoes are bred for higher solids for use in tomato sauce and paste. Lycopene is the tetraterpene carotenoid compound, which is made up from the eight units of isoprene. J Agric Food, Prediction of lycopene degradation during a drying process of, Fogliano V (2003) Effect of peeling and heating on carotenoid, content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato-virgin, olive oil systems. Acta Aliment, 115. The kinetics of lycopene, degradation followed a first-order reaction with a reaction, rate constant dependent on product moisture content, in, addition to temperature. Apart from this, the synthesis of lycopene using the biotechnological strategies to increase its production has also been mentioned. The removal of moisture, from the food matrix prevents the growth and reproduction, of spoilage microorganisms, slows down the action of, enzymes, and minimizes many of the moisture-mediated, deteriorative reactions. J Sci Food Agric 90:1597–1604, 3. LWT 41:367–375, pressure food processing. ever, crushed tomato (normal and with onion) and tomato. Nevertheless, determined technological condi-, tions of HHP and PEF processing may be used to enhance, the health-promoting properties of those tomato products, due to a lower lycopene degradation or increased isomer-, treatments, no great lycopene changes are observed under, typical processing conditions, although very high tem-, peratures or long storage periods may greatly affect, lycopene stability. Water may also counteract peroxide decom-, position by hydrogen bonding with hydroperoxides and, encourage radical recombination, which could interrupt the, lower than glass transition temperature), which denotes that, the presence of a mobile phase of water is not required for, pattern related to moisture content observed by Giovanelli, since dried tomato pulps were produced by different, heating intensities and drying conditions. However, that study showed that the observed reinforce-, ment of the tomato pulp structure resulted in a decrease in, lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility. The gained amount of, isomer appeared to rapidly decrease as the light intensity, late light transmission in translucent packages, were tested in, intensity conditions, no significant total and all-, copene changes were observed during storage, while the, isomer lycopene reduction was statistically significant and, the percentage changes were 30 % lower than in the un-, treated samples. 0000004616 00000 n Work with ferrets, a species that absorbs carotenoids intact, has demonstrated that whereas a lycopene dose, stomach, and intestinal contents contained 6-18% cis-lycopene, the mesenteric lymph secretions contained 77%-cis isomers. Carotenoids are isoprenoids widely distributed in foods that have been always part of the diet of humans. EOs were completely released from the active cardboard tray after 16 days at 8 °C, although EOs beneficial effect on tomato was maintained until day 24. The whole tomato puree is richer in phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds than the traditional puree that is made by removing skins and seeds. J Food Eng 35:369–380, 56. In this work, a new type of tomato puree was obtained from the whole fruit including seeds and skins without any waste. 0000004058 00000 n J Agric Food Chem 51:7962–, Periago MJ (2009) Changes in antioxidant compounds during, the shelf life of commercial tomato juices in different packaging, materials. The, better lycopene stability during storage found in our study, plained by several reasons: (1) tomato samples of our, study were cut into halves which implies less tomato liq-, uids leaking during drying process compared to those, tomato slices have higher exposed surface to lycopene, oxidation compared to our samples which were longitu-, dinally cut into two halves; (3) pre-treatment of our tomato, halves could have better retained the lycopene content than, those applied to the tomato slices; (4) packaging condi-, tomato halves kept better the lycopene content than those, Although the experimental laboratory conditions of the, above described studies were selected to mimic tom, industrial treatments, significant deviations could be ob-, served when comparing the end products of laboratory, experiments to those from an industrial-scale process. The packaging materials of stored agricultural products are also very important. ently increase the lycopene content of tomato products. 30 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 32 /H [ 940 335 ] /L 188646 /E 148553 /N 8 /T 187928 >> endobj xref 30 25 0000000016 00000 n Furthermore, in the last few years special attention has. On the other side, Varma et al. stitute and International Center for Tropical Agriculture, (2010) Carotenoid stability during production and storage of, tomato juice made from tomatoes with diverse pigment profiles, measured by infrared spectroscopy. In this case, the isomerization was below 12 %, which is considered low as in other tomato products for the, tributed the higher lycopene stability after 48, storage, even at higher storage temperature, to the presence, and stability of other antioxidants. 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