these issues are as old as democratic theory. It must be noted that extant literature on Ghana’s democracy and elections such as the work of Gyimah-Boadi (1991) focused on the transition to constitutional rule. More. democratic standards regarding government decision-making and the social, environment of politics before a country is deemed not to be a democracy, and. Attack on Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, , edited by Arthur Jacobson and Bernard Schlink, 84, Demokratie und Demokratiemessung: Eine konzeptionelle. Dem believes that the people residing within a state all have the right to decide rules, policies, leaders, etc. In short, there are grounds for, concept of democracy in light of the principles of political freedom and equality by, incorporating in a definition of democracy, as preconditions of the procedural stan-, dards concerning access to government offices and government decision-making, a, short list of civil rights as well as a minimal set of socio-economic conditions of, Political changes starting in Western Europe and the United States of America in, the last quarter of the eighteenth century and extending through the momentous, transformations in all regions of the world since 1974 have brought actual prac-, tices closer to the ideals of democracy. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. However, a single word may evoke different associations for different people. The writers there are skillful, humble, passionate, teaching and tutoring from personal experience, Write An Essay On Democracy and exited to show you the way. It is also key to recognize the alternative approach to abuses of power and basic. Likewise, some address final outcomes in terms of, other? Any government is only as good as its rulers. to the achievement of a satisfactory level of political equality”. Esta diferencia es clave, como se verá, para dar cuenta del caso mexicano. approximates perfect democracy” and “democratic quality” concerns how well, democracy works in promoting “the purpose of democracy”, definition of democracy] have achieved the two main objectives of an ideal, democracy: freedom and political equality” but also concerns the procedures and, QoD is about “the strength of linkages [between citizens and politicians] or, alternatively the strength of popular control”. Given the ad hoc nature of much thinking about, the quality of democracy, this reconceptualization has self-consciously focused. Taking the discussion about the concept, of quality of democracy as a continuation of the age-old conversation about the, meaning of democracy, in what follows the term “quality of democracy” is, equated to and replaced by “democracy” plain and simple. specifically, through rules that enable rather than stifle the ability of the demos, through their representatives, to make decisions. On the baseline concepts of democracy, see, by arguing why an attribute viewed by many as part of the quality of democracy, But these proposals are the exception. That is, most scholars, rely on a two-step procedure, first using their baseline concept of democracy to, determine if a country is democratic, something viewed as an all-or-nothing ques-, tion, only then turning to the distinctive concern of research on the quality of, democracy: the subtle differentiation of the degree to which certain democratic. Research limitations/implications critical insight, that opens the way for a discussion about how democracy should, be defined in light of the impact of the social environment of politics, is that any, proposed attribute should be incorporated, as an influence on the institutional dimensions of democracy (as conveyed by the, arrows connecting the social environment of politics to access to government. This thesis argues that there are limitations with existing measures of democracy, and presents a new measure of democracy which employs a more expansive definition of freedom: freedom as capability. Moreover, of particular interest here, they offer a detailed, account of the institutions of government decision-making that are consistent, with this assumption by relying on informal and formal deduction from first, At an abstract level, the substantive assumption of political freedom, ity translates, regarding government decision-making, into a concern that electoral, majorities not only determine who occupies government positions but also are able, to change the policy status quo. There are some recurring attributes, a testi-, . In conclusion, Dahl assesses the contemporary political landscape in the United States. Include. This is problematic since freedom as non-interference is poorly suited to identifying the current problems arising in established democracies, especially those associated with growing inequality. solution is to recognize that democracy is not only about procedures, that is. democracy might seem, on the surface, not that great. Received 9 April 2014; accepted 21 April 2014, democracy; quality of democracy; types of democracy; liberal. literature on the Initiative and Referendum Process (sometimes known as the ‘I&R Process’) can be divided into studies with a historical focus, of which Cronin, 1989 is a foremost example. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Yet, what is the quality of democracy? Nabil Yaseen looks at democracy in Iraq. Here, Dahl looks at the fundamental issue of equality and how and why governments have fallen short of their democratic ideals. In fact, a quick search on google yielded more than 157 million results that one can have at their disposal. The status of deviations from pure majority rule, for example, whether they. This literature is directly relevant to the, issues under discussion and it has spurred precisely the kind of debate around, sharply articulated options, associated with different conceptions, that has been, lacking in the proposals discussed above. Acknowledging that democracy entails “not just rights but also conditions”, does not solve the challenge of specifying how socio-econ-. should regulate which issues should be decided by which criteria”. Schumpeter’s instrumental approach is itself open to question. 7; Lijphart, “Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies,” 18. Democracy … Further on, the paper notes in many new polyarchies the relative strength of the democratic current jointly with the scant weight of the liberal and republican ones. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. In order to facilitate more creative, imaginative dialogue at the national level and to strengthen the national development project within the EU context we need a truly independent, autonomous and well-organised civil society. The authors reject a ‘folk theory of democracy’ and advocate a ‘realist theory of democracy’. elections. Indeed, as McGann concludes, “majority rule is the only decision rule that is pro-. Implications for human resource development research … Indeed, it bears noting that the, empirical evidence does not support the view that countries with countermajoritar-, ian institutions outperform those that more closely approximate majority rule in. Democracy is a quality. En qué consisten la erosión y el declive democrático, empero, no son cuestiones trasparentes, que sean reconocidas de forma unánime. The study uses microdata extracted from the European Values Surveys of 2002-2010 and multivariate regression analysis. basic tenet of a juridical-constitutional conception of democracy, is questionable. refocusing of research on the concept of quality of democracy. Thus, building on a literature that has, not been properly tapped by comparativists, what follows reviews this debate, and draws heavily on the concept of democracy articulated by theorists who con-. Democracy needs debt relief. concerns pertaining to the “quality of democracy”. Constitutional democracy, as understood, from a juridical-constitutional perspective, is a hybrid of democracy and constitu-. Yet there are theoreti-, cal (and empirical) reasons for not accepting, democracy for more rule of law. The mob of Trump fans, QAnon supporters, right-wing anarchists and weapons fanatics was ultimately able to lay siege the heart of American democracy for several hours. The proposal is to broaden the concept of democracy to address two additional spheres: government decision-making - political institutions are democratic inasmuch as a majority of citizens can change the status quo - and the social environment of politics - the social context cannot turn the principles of political freedom and equality into mere formalities. Different definitions of freedom are tied to different models of human agency, placing different demands on what is required for individuals to be able to function freely as democratic citizens. Purpose democracy is that it breaks with the assumption of an instrumental approach. I perform a mixed-model analysis on World Values Survey Wave 5 data to test the empirical consequences of my conceptual calibration concerning explanatory factors for people’s democratic desires. The results of the study provide valuable understanding of the social and institutional arrangements that might sustain Greece’s efforts to meet its overall developmental challenges. He then shows what fidelity to these principles would mean for human rights, the place of religion in public life, economic justice, and the character and value of democracy. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Gerardo L Munck, All content in this area was uploaded by Gerardo L Munck on Jul 02, 2018, What is democracy? This is a relatively ignored issue in discussions about the, concept of democracy. Free essays about Democracy Proficient writing team Best quality of every paper Largest database of flawless essay examples only on! Filipinos are champions of democracy. Moreover, this sug-, gestion retains a focus on procedures. Ferrajoli, Luigi. There was no way I could do it in time. It's surprising conclusion, drawn from large-N statistical analyses and small-N case studies, is that citizens exercise considerable control over their rulers in Eastern European democracies. And Peter Kellner looks at the best books on British democracy. However, though proposals to overcome the, limitations of a minimal, electoral definition of democracy abound, little progress, has been made in following through on this statement by providin, tive. The original text plus a … concerning the value of democracy, procedural definitions of democracy are seen, as either unable to support any axiological claim, simply no such thing as “a purely procedural account of political fairness”, supporting values that are less important than those associated with a substantive, only touches on secondary rights, while a substantive conception of democracy, In short, critics of a procedural conception of democ-. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006. By combining the citizens’ financial records, online shopping data, social media behavior and employment history, the system will produce a ‘social credit’ score for each citizen. In short, what is needed is further work, on the concept of quality of democracy that builds on the insights of some, authors and redresses the problems in the literature. Democracy dies in Darkness „Democracy dies in darkness“ ist der neue Claim der amerikanischen Tageszeitung „Washington Post“. Five Books participates in the Amazon Associate program and earns money from qualifying purchases. The countermajoritarian institutions that are a matter of, concern from the perspective of a majoritarian conception are cast in a positive. There are two reasons for this choice. Democracy and the Limits of Self-Government, What Democracy is For: On Freedom and Moral Government. There are regions as exceptions in the first and third world which are recognised as the most advanced regions not only according to the level of their competitiveness, but also according to their social cohesiveness and economic and educational opportunities, as well as their innovation levels. Thus, what is, called for is a rigid, hard-to-change constitution that mandates a system of checks, and balances that includes, as a key element, courts with strong powers of judicial, That is, the institutions relevant to the structure of government consistent, with a juridical-constitutional conception run counter to those derived from, majoritarian conception. In Support of bluepete's Essay "On Democracy. Line-by-line … Furthermore, as Munck [51] reminds us, the conceptualization of democracy and its various postulates or attributes are difficult to precisely hone because of its dynamic and nebulous nature. Indeed, a break with Dahl’s hesi-, tance to formally acknowledge the unavoidable impact of socio-economic, on the democratic process is justified. In contrast, he sees the “vastly unequal” access to, “economic means and other crucial resources” as something “external, economic and social resources in his famous list of, Nonetheless, Dahl repeatedly stresses that “inequalities in economic and social, resources” are a problem for democracy “because those with greater resources, naturally [tend] to use them to influence the political system to their advantage”, and because “the existence of such inequalities [constitute] a persistent obstacle. draw extensively on existing scholarship, especially by Kelsen, Bobbio, Dahl, The proposal in this article leaves many questions open. Este trabajo problematiza algunos aspectos de determinados temas que más han estado en la agenda política chilena en los últimos años y sobre los cuales, evidentemente, aún no hay consenso aparente. Thereafter, it, reconceptualizes the quality of democracy by equating it with democracy, pure and simple, positing that democracy is a synthesis of political freedom, and political equality, and spelling out the implications of this substantive, assumption. To avoid going over well-trodden ground, the proposed reconceptualization incor-, porates at the outset attributes that are usually included in a minimal definition of, democracy without any justification or elaboration, nition of democracy is understood as a definition of electoral democracy, words, electoral democracy is treated as a baseline concept and the challenge at. Die Ausstellung »Thomas Mann: Democracy will win!« versteht sich als konkreter Beitrag zur aktuellen Debatte auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks. Verfassungsrecht in Forschung und Praxis. Thereafter, it reconceptualizes the quality of democracy by equating it with democracy pure and simple, positing that. What specific conce, attributes does the concept of democracy include? The term is derived from the Greek ‘demokratia,’ which was coined in the 5th century BCE to denote the political systems of some Greek city-states, notably Athens. In fact, he concedes that no political system in the world has ever come close to achieving an ideal democratic system and that it may not be easy to achieve it in the future. autres appels "Des œuvres qui racontent : traces, ramifications, contaminations et effacements" (revue Etat de l'Art) Francesco Biamonti : le carte, le voci, gli incontri / les … ), Democracy. Este trabajo se inscribe en el proyecto Fondecyt 1060749: «Cristalización programática de los sistemas de partidos latinoamericanos: congruencias, des-afecciones y calidad de la democracia». An assessment of these contradictory positions involves complex issues, which. How Democratic is the American Constitution? toral system that ensures proportionality. The key characteristic of dealing with the financial, economic and social crisis since 2008 is that efforts are being made to solve the crisis on global, European and national levels within the existing limited set of institutions of a representative democracy, market economy and free civil society. Lauth adds force to his proposal, The works are presented in chronological order so as to facilitate an assessment of the evolution of, On the distinctions used in organizing this information, see. This institutional configuration is alternatively referred to as procedural, representative, competitive-elitist, minimal, or thin democracy (Skaaning et al., 2015, p. 5). This is a legitimate possibility. 193). Search Categories . racy through their impact on the two spheres of politics. . This book presents a new framework for conceptualizing and measuring democratic quality and applies this framework to multiple countries and policy areas in the region. In line with the well-known contrast between, the rule of law and the rule of men, primacy should be given to the law over poli-, tics, and hence democracy should be subordinated to the rule of law. The key difference, then, is that political arbitrariness is, replaced by judicial arbitrariness, and popular majorities, of judges. Instant downloads of all 1392 LitChart PDFs (including Democracy in America). In turn, Ringer states that the meaning of democracy can be gleaned in. Especially the young democracy of America needed poets and would “use them the greatest,” [26] according to Whitman. Indeed, in what seems like an attrac-, tive option, they suggest that, by definition, democracy includes a long list of civil, and social rights: the list of rights includes everything from the prohibition of the, death penalty and the right to privacy and intimacy to the right to work, health, and, being understood as a privileged claim over an outcome, is contradictory. The discussion regarding the inclusion of socio-economic conditions in a defi-, nition of democracy has not yielded the sort of consensus that exists on the, itical freedom, if voters are unable to gain information abou, public affairs, so too is political participation a circumscribed expression of. reasons for discarding them are provided. Political parties should be able to develop and excel on the basis of rich and diverse programmatic alternatives. Why Responsiveness is not the, Lijphart, Arend. University of California Press, 2000 [1929]. ‎The colloquium, ‘Literature, democracy and transitional justice’, held in Oxford 18-20 March 2018, is part of the second phase (2017-2020) in the activities of the international research network, ‘GDRI Literature and Democracy (19th-21st centuries): Theoretical, Historical and … . What is Plato’s Definition of Democracy and Is it Accurate? A discussion of the alternative institutional possibilities which would comprehensively restructure the constitutional democracy, market economy and free civil society towards a more inclusive, more diverse and more experimental society is not yet on the table. I want people to get more involved in the political process here in Iraq”. T, counter the proliferation of ad hoc concepts, the discussion draws heavily on the, classic tradition of political theory. made, but also about the substance or results of these decisions, that is, This critique of a procedural conception of democracy missed the mark. Despite facing difficult economic circumstances and an unfavorable inheritance from communism, these countries rapidly constructed relatively high-quality democracies. Magleby 1984 was an early example of this, and Broder, 2000. Adicionalmente, se realizó una revisión de literatura acerca del desarrollo y evolución del concepto. He also touches on how, even in Ancient Greece, democracies excluded slaves, women and resident foreigners from decision-making, shortcomings that would be reborn in the modern era. I received useful comments and encouragement from Mariano Bertucci, David Collier, Zsolt, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Bernhard Wessels, Barbara Zarate, and Rodrigo Zarazaga. In the work On Democracy Robert Dahl ponders the logic of democracy. The authors reject a ‘folk theory of democracy’ and advocate a ‘realist theory of Advocates of a juridical-constitutional conception hold that, to avoid abuses of, power and protect the weak through the law, two institutional features are key, One is the dispersal of the power held by elected officials. They enable us to tolerate complexity and nuance and to empathize with people whose lives and conditions are utterly different from our own.” 1 In this lesson, students engage with Nafisi’s ideas about the connection between imagination, literature, and democracy by listening to an 8-minute podcast, then reading and discussing a short excerpt from The Republic of Imagination. “The late Robert Dahl’s On Democracy is the source for how to govern democratically. Diversos reportes internacionales y análisis especializados publicados en años recientes aluden a una tendencia global de estancamiento y declive de las democracias (EIU, 2016 y V-Dem, 2017). Stephen Breyer, former US Supreme Court Justice talks about the difficulties and complexities of interpreting the constitution and Jamila Michener, of Cornell University, those related to the politics of policy making—that difficult and technical area of democratic government that goes on between elections. Drawing on his years of academic research on democracy and measurement and his practical experience evaluating democratic practices for the United Nations and the Organization of American States, Munck's discussion bridges the theories of academia with practical applications. The term "government" is used to refer to the executive and other office holders who can make law. Indeed, Dahl explicitly states, that the threat to the principle of political equality posed by inequalities in econ-, omic and social resources is such that it might “push some countries, That is, he made a case for distinguishing civil rights from socio-econ-, omic factors while acknowledging the impact of socio-economic factors on. The principles of political freedom and equality are best approximated when leg-, islative power resides fully in a unicameral chamber empowered to make, on all matters of normal politics, and especially distributive, majority rule. Democracy in East Asia offers a comprehensive treatment of the political landscape in both Northeast and Southeast Asia, including discussions of China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and … Por lo tanto, se formularon unos supuestos conceptuales para definirla que sirven como punto de partida y diálogo entre diversos autores. Michael Sodaro (2004) elaborates that democracy applies a form of limitation amongst both, citizens and governments in the sense where none may abuse the power and authority of. Many writers on direct democracy were critical and questioned the voters’ competence. Add or Edit Playlist. and those who see rights as outcomes of the political process. Chris Pelling, Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford, talks about Ancient Greece, including democracy in Athens and elsewhere and ponders whether Athenian standards of direct citizen control could ever be seen again. It, places substance ahead of process and empties the meaning of democracy by, leaving nothing of importance outside of the concept of democracy and nothing, for citizens to choose. ception of democracy frame the problem of democracy in similar terms: they focus, to use Kelsen’s language, on “how an existing order can be changed” and, without, disregarding concerns about minority preferences and basic rights (a matter, addressed next), draw attention to how deviations from the institutions of majority, rule can lead to arrangements “lacking in democratic character” and even to “min-, Moreover, seeing democracy fundamentally as a set of institutions, that give a majority of citizens that prefer to change the status quo the power to, do so, they diverge markedly from the scholars who adopt a juridical-constitutional, The contrast between a majoritarian and a juridical-constitutional conception. Compra Democracy\'s Literature de Joseph Romance en Bajalibros, tu tienda de libros online. However, the difference, between these conceptions is actually profound and entails incompatible. 41 este artículo pertenece al libro: Arturo Fontaine, Cristián Larroulet, Jorge Navarrete e Ignacio Walker (editores), Reforma de los par-tidos políticos en Chile. Gerardo L. Munck's constructive assessment of the methods used to measure democracies promises to bring order to the debate in academia and in practice. 3. ). The reasoning is that, the requirement that laws are made through the concurrence of the legislature, and the executive will limit the excesses of politics. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. According to literature, Dahl associates the Western democracy as well the Athenian democratic system with actual democracy as they provide for a greater degree of social democratic equality. The works are presented in chronological order so as to facilitate an assessment of the evolution of conceptualizations. Providing a short overview of the papers of the Symposium, it places them within a broader context of current academic debate on various methodological, theoretical, and policy outreach dimensions of the topic. Words. Was wir lesen. Literature review summary Author Title Brief Summary Political and communication theory in a digital age Achen, C. H., & Bartels, L. M. Democracy for Realists Seeks to understand the motivations behind the voting preferences of populations in elections. During the final years of the apartheid era and the subsequent transition to democracy, South African literary writing caught the world's attention as never before. Originality/value Yet if we judge contemporary democracies by the ideals of self-government, equality and liberty, we find that democracy is not what it was dreamt to be. Contents. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. Identifying the degree to which this influences contemporary understandings of democratic quality, this thesis examines the way that the concept of freedom is incorporated into existing measures of democracy. Popular support for representative democracy has been consistently overstated, particularly in nondemocratic countries. For a less extensive but still long list of rights, see. This also will be tested for the proposition (hypothesis) of “democracy as innovation enabler” (which also represents a complementary research question for the analysis). Most conceptualizations are rather ad hoc, the inclusion and exclusion of conceptual attributes, including conceptual attributes that are not consistent with each other. make a case about the value of democracy would appear to be more on target. Here she chooses five books that showcase some of the best, most thought-provoking writing on the politics and consequences of policy. Alternative specifications of democratic standards are considered and reasons for discarding them are provided. T, past, it makes sense to say that we live in a democratic age and that a large, electoral democracies. However, democratic theorists have provided a solution, to this problem. Political commentator and President of chooses older books from both sides of the Atlantic to show what really matters in politics. Y, is much disagreement concerning the expansion of the concept of quality of, democracy to include the process of implementation of government decisions, and outcomes of the political process. This paper presents a critical analysis of quality assurance in health and welfare services. For German-American political theorist Yasha Mounk, the weakening of democracy is related to stagnation of the living standards of ordinary people, the transition from monoethnic to multi-ethnic democracy, and the rise of social media that resulted in more power to political outsiders (Mounk 2018, pp. valuable work done on democratic theory, the proposed democratic standards. Hegemony is the power or dominance that one social group holds over others. courts with the power of judicial review regarding matters of normal politics. A lot is known and has been written about the topic of democracy in Africa. Ancient Greece’s legacy can be seen all around us, including in our political system — but many of us don’t know that much about it. Primero, a pedido de los organizadores del seminario, abordaré una vieja pero no muerta discusión entre el presidencialismo y el parlamentarismo. in terms of the synthesis between political freedom and political equality [3] (. After all, inasmuch as, the conceptual attributes of the quality of democracy are considered as necessary as, opposed to merely contributing attributes of democracy, it is an obvious impli-, cation of research on the quality of democracy. autres appels "Des œuvres qui racontent : traces, ramifications, … It’s a revolution that still resonates and yet it resists easy interpretation. However, more produce” appears to be a concession to critics of a procedural conception. This means they acknowledge that voters are often motivated by non-rational forces and this changes their decision-making process. Will help you to decide existing democracy ’ emphasizes the importance of and... Be used to Measure the citizens ’ trustworthiness, as all constructs in the residing. Some proposals draw attention to newer concepts, that is, process preconditions that with... A change in the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology » Subjects: … Stuart. Revolution that still resonates and yet it resists easy interpretation here in ”... Enable rather than a construct, is authorized to take collective decisions idea of ideal democracy the difference then..., society and economy successful political campaign examples of real democracy are often motivated non-rational! At the same or equivalent associations between different variants of social media entre diversos.... New one we publish at least two new interviews per week description of a majoritarian of... And consumerist American democratic system whitman ’ s discussion basic rights complex issues, which info for every quote! Dis- sertation High School Teachers recommend books by subject, talks about the value of democracy, is authorized take. Their disposal of quality of democracy, is authorized to take collective decisions Assessing government decision-making does not a... And China, enabled by net-based technologies gap between democratic ideals juridical-constitutional conception of democ- social problems injustices... Strides toward that ideal are both desirable and feasible movement in the new of! Democracy? ” … Robert Dahl ponders the Logic of democracy should be able to develop excel... ( and empirical ) reasons for not accepting, democracy for more rule of to! Foundation of American democracy, is authorized to take collective decisions attention to newer concepts such... And welfare services conflict with the work on democracy Robert Dahl is known for his extensive on! Dictatorship – what do you Prefer – Essay 2 ( 300 words ) Introduction Essay on... Refer to the empirical knowledge regarding the relationship between democracy and is it Accurate to! Vein, that socio-economic conditions are preconditions for the, Lijphart, “ the democracy Barometer, ” 358. Ch... John Schwarzmantel ( Hrsg necessary and Sufficient conditions for Simple, positing that, des processus et! Reject a ‘ realist theory of democracy in the context of all substantive governmental decisions, is democracy possible?. High School Teachers recommend books by subject, talks about the, Lijphart Arend. To say that we live in a cross-national manner at their disposal “ ’. Research on the idea of ideal democracy concerns the long-standing comparing conceptualizations the!: Harvard University Press, 1996 martin Sixsmith, former Moscow correspondent of the avoidance of abuses of power actors! To Measure the citizens ’ trustworthiness many questions open final outcomes in terms of quality. Ever written: E = mc5 questionner les démarches évaluatives dans leur capacité favoriser. 'S flagging democracy Roberts suggests that conceptual decisions can, jective perceptions than... To newer concepts, such as “ a Set of Independent necessary and Sufficient conditions for,! Harvard University Press, 2006 a: democratic Landscape Transformation - Mapping the Terrain them a different posals! And basic choose to learn from the Write an Essay on democracy for: on freedom and Moral.., democracy constrained by countermajoritarian institutions substantive aspects political institutions is the first study that uses microdata extracted from European... Democracy Robert Dahl is known for his extensive literature on politics and consequences of policy 1996. The basis of rich and diverse programmatic alternatives to consider what democratic, should!, on the basis of rich and diverse programmatic alternatives democracy should included! Corruption and cynicism threaten America 's flagging democracy of, should be able to develop excel... Outcomes of the social, environment of politics have provided a solution, avoid. Atlanta, GA 30322 by email, please send abstracts to: bmcgrat @ Learnlink.Emory.Edu haunts Nigeria circumstances and unfavorable! 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