Structure of [Ni(CN)4]2- 4. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. 2 Answers. [7], Ni(CO)4 is not readily available commercially. Permanent respiratory damage is unusual. These complexes may be homoleptic, that is containing only CO ligands, such as nickel tetracarbonyl (Ni(CO) 4 ), but more commonly metal carbonyls are heteroleptic and contain a mixture of ligands. This method starts by creating a simpler molecule with the desired symmetry and then transforms the component atoms to create the nickel tetracarbonyl structure. Orbitals are numbered in ascending energy, and any MO can be selected by number in the console. The formula conforms to 18-electron rule. Vinylic halides, such as PhCH=CHBr, are converted to the unsaturated esters upon treatment with Ni(CO)4 followed by sodium methoxide. Structure as well as bonding. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.[15]. Nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, a poisonous gas used in the refining of nickel, has 10 electrons provided by the neutral nickel atom and two from each of the four CO ligands, giving 18 electrons in all. a) Based on what you know about transition metals, is the nickel most likely a Lewis acid or a Lewis base? Cl-ion is weak field ligand hence no transfer of electrons take place. Nickel tetracarbonyl | Ni(CO)4 or C4NiO4 | CID 518772 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. 9 likes. Structure and bonding. The formula conforms to 18-electron rule. Vibrations of Nickel Tetracarbonyl. This colorless liquid is the principal carbonyl of nickel. Combined with the easy formation from CO and even very impure nickel, this decomposition is the basis for the Mond process for the purification of nickel or plating onto surfaces. [13], The vapours of Ni(CO)4 can autoignite. The formula conforms to 18-electron rule . Click to show vibration frequency list. Learn more about Nickel tetracarbonyl Ni(CO)4 and 1500 further substances and get the right recommendation on protective equipment and gas detection devices. tetracarbonylnickel; nickel tetracarbonyl CAD - Chemical Agents Directive, Art. The formula conforms to 18-electron rule. Nickel carbonyle [French] RCRA waste no. 4.6 (7) How useful was this page? The formula conforms to 18-electron rule. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. tétracarbonylé Nickel Des noms nom IUPAC. The formula conforms to 18-electron rule. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Pointgroup Flow Chart . In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. NICKEL CARBONYL Synonyms MTG MSDS 128; NICKEL TETRACARBONYL; NICKEL SPONGE; CARBONYL NICKEL POWDER; TETRACARBONYL NICKEL; UN 1259; C4NiO4 Chemical Family carbonyls Product Use Industrial and Specialty Gas Applications. Formation of [NiCl4]2- 3. 7 years ago. These reach greatest severity after four days, possibly resulting in death from cardiorespiratory or acute kidney injury. Structure and bonding The ... Nickel tetracarbonyl is considered as one of the strongest inhalation poisons. How many moles of carbon are in the sample? It has 18 valence electron , and is a tetrahedral molecule with four carbonyl ( carbon monoxide ) ligands attached to nickel. Type "mo homo" in the console to view the HOMO of the molecule and find out what its number is, or "mo lumo" to view the LUMO. The molecule is tetrahedral, with four carbonyl (carbon monoxide) ligands. The molecular structure of gaseous nickel tetracarbonyl has been investigated by electron diffraction at room temperature. [3], In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Now,CO is a strong field ligand, so it will pair the electrons to give [Ar]3d104s0. 13463-39-3 - AWDHUGLHGCVIEG-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Nickel carbonyl - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. The analysis, based on an assumed Td molecular symmetry with corrections for the effects of vibrational motion, led to the following bond distances (rg) and amplitudes of vibration (l) with estimated uncertainties (2σ), all in angstroms: r (C=O) =1.141(2), r (Ni–C) =1.838(2), l (C=O) =0.039(2), … [Ni], (indiquer la voie d'exposition s'il est formellement prouvé qu'aucune autre voie d'exposition ne conduit au même danger), Entrée « Tetracarbonylnickel » dans la base de données de produits chimiques, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tétracarbonyle_de_nickel&oldid=161892251, Pages avec des arguments non numériques dans formatnum, Infobox Chimie avec données 67/548/EEC redondantes à supprimer, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Viewed 2k times 4. Part I", "The Toxicology of Nickel Carbonyl. Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula Fe(C O) 5.Under standard conditions Fe() 5 is a free-flowing, straw-colored liquid with a pungent odour. Ask Question Asked 4 years, 2 months ago. These compounds can also be obtained by reduction of nickel carbonyl. 2 $\begingroup$ Is nickel tetracarbonyl a square planar complex or a tetrahedral complex? These questions concern the formation of tetracarbonyl nickel. Nickel carbonyl is one of the most dangerous substances yet encountered in nickel chemistry due to its very high toxicity, compounded with high volatility and rapid skin absorption. Le tétracarbonyle de nickel ne se trouve pas facilement dans le commerce ; il est en revanche aisément généré en laboratoire par carbonylation du bis(1,5-cyclooctadiène)nickel qui est, quant à lui, disponible dans le commerce. Its structure is tetrahedral and the point group is Td. The CO ligands, in which the C and the O are connected by triple bonds, are covalently bonded to the nickel atom via the carbon ends. [C-]#[O+].[C-]#[O+].[C-]#[O+].[C-]#[O+]. Thermal decomposition commences near 180 °C and increases at higher temperature.[7]. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Structure and bonding. Whole Molecule Method. Le tétracarbonyle de nickel possède 18 électrons de valence et un atome de nickel à l'état d'oxydation 0. Make sure you add formal charges. References. Nickel carbonyl is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni4. Formula. Having the molecular formula Ni(CO) 4, nickel carbonyl is composed of a central nickel atom surrounded by four carbonyl (carbon monoxide) ligands in a tetrahedral arrangement. Structure Le tétracarbonyle de nickel possède 18 électrons de valence et un atome de nickel à l' état d'oxydation 0. Nickel tétracarbonyle - Nickel tetracarbonyl. Nickle carbonyl. Nickel tetracarbonyl contains nickel in the zero oxidation state. II. National Institute of Standards and Formula. each chlorine ion donate 2 electron. The table shows element percentages for Ni(CO) 4 (nickel tetracarbonyl). Nickel Tetracarbonyl. Structure of complex compounds based on VBT 1. The molecule is tetrahedral, with four carbonyl (carbon monoxide) ligands. This article should be called Nickel tetracarbonyl but as a google search reveals omitting the tetra is by far more prevalent, I'll leave it for now. About Nickel tetracarbonyl; Nickel tetracarbonyl weighs 1.319 gram per cubic centimeter or 1 319 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. Preparation directly from the elements is possible for all except NiF 2, which is best prepared from reaction of F 2 on NiCl 2 at 350°C. b) Draw the Lewis structure for carbon monoxide, CO. Make sure each atom has an octet. In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. Molecular and electronic structure of square-planar nickel(ii), nickel(iii) and nickel(iii)π-cation radical complexes with a tetradentate o-phenylenedioxamidate redox-active ligand. Structure of Nickel Carbonyl (tetracarbonyl) Nickel tetracarbonyl (Ni ... is administrated at a temperature of 200°C under 400 atm carbon monoxide gas pressures for obtaining high yield of nickel tetracarbonyl and also to forestall thermal dissociation. Structure and bonding . Formula: C 4 NiO 4; Molecular weight: 170.7338; IUPAC Standard InChI: The molecular structure of gaseous nickel tetracarbonyl has been investigated by electron diffraction at room temperature. Nickel carbonyl may be fatal if absorbed through the skin or more likely, inhaled due to its high volatility. Older samples appear darker. Right-click in the Jmol window to bring up the menu, and choose "console" to bring up the console window. In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. Adjust the appearance of the molecule and the vectors corresponding to the movements using the check boxes to optimise the view. Its volatility at room temperature and toxicity have earned the compound the nickname liquid death. O- Z GO OS a) (5 pts) Determine the reducible representation describing the vibrational modes of the carbonyl (CO) groups. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Click the Symmetry Operations above to view them in 3D. One 4s & three 4p orbitals It has 18 valence electron, and is a tetrahedral molecule with four carbonyl (carbon monoxide) ligands attached to nickel.The CO ligands, in which the C and the O are connected by triple bonds (often depicted as double bonds), are covalently bonded to the nickel atom via the carbon ends. The Symmetry Toolkit is used to find symmetry and to complete final adjustment of the atomic coordinates. Type "mo homo" in the console to view the HOMO of the molecule and find out what its number is, or "mo lumo" to view the LUMO. These compounds are usually yellow to dark brown in Color. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Electronic Fluorocarbons 3266 Bergey Road Meandmyself 11:11, 24 April 2006 (UTC) Google notwithstanding, chemists in US rarely use the prefix tetra. The table shows element percentages for Ni(CO) 4 (nickel tetracarbonyl). CONTROLS . The formula conforms to 18-electron rule.The molecule is tetrahedral, with four carbonyl (carbon monoxide) ligands attached to nickel. insoluble in 20?C water Kaye & Laby (No longer updated): soluble in alkali Kaye & Laby (No longer updated): soluble in benzene Kaye & Laby (No longer updated): soluble in concentrated H2SO4 Kaye & Laby (No longer updated): soluble in ethanol Kaye & Laby (No longer updated): soluble in ether Kaye & Laby (No longer updated): Soluble in nickel tetracarbonyl and organic solvents. Nickel has the configuration of [Ar]3d84s2. It has 18 valence electron, and is a tetrahedral molecule with four carbonyl (carbon monoxide) ligands attached to nickel. It is an intermediate in the Mond process for the purification of nickel and a reagent in organometallic chemistry. The molecular structure of gaseous nickel tetracarbonyl has been investigated by electron diffraction at room temperature. [10] The monosubstitution of nickel tetracarbonyl with other ligands can be used to determine the Tolman electronic parameter, a measure of the electron donating or withdrawing ability of a given ligand. Cookies help us deliver our services. The structure of nickel tetracarbonyl and some disubstituted derivatives R. S. Nyholm and L. N. Short, J. Chem. Cookies help us deliver our services. Bipyridine and related ligands behave similarly. "Requiem for the Living" (1978), an episode of Quincy, M.E., features a poisoned, dying crime lord who asks Dr. Quincy to autopsy his still-living body. Structure and bonding . The molecule is tetrahedral , with four carbonyl ( carbon monoxide ) … In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. 0 0. 1259 131. Write the values in … Structure of [CoF6]3- 5. Because of its high volatility, nickel carbonyl can be lethal if ingested through the skin, or more likely inhaled. The molecule is tetrahedral, with four carbonyl carbon monoxide ligands. QR6300000. It is an intermediate in the Mond process for producing very high-purity nickel and a reagent in organometallic chemistry, although the Mond Process has fallen out of common usage due to the health hazards in working with the compound. Structure of nickel tetracarbonyl [Ni(CO)4] 2. Electron diffraction studies have been performed on this molecule, and the Ni–C and C–O distances have been calculated to be 1.838(2) and 1.141(2) angstroms respectively. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. P073 1ZYL78UWZN. In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. Extreme heat and pressure from deep within Earth cause changes to the rock's appearance, structure, and composition. It was also applied industrially to the purification of nickel by the end of the 19th century. Le tétracarbonyle de nickel, souvent appelé nickel carbonyle, est un composé chimique de formule Ni(CO)4. Active 4 years, 1 month ago. In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. This method builds the nickel tetracarbonyl structure up from nothing by using the Symmetry Toolkit to create an irreducible fragment of unique atoms in the desired symmetry. Lv 4. Nickel Tetracarbonyl Structure and Molecular Orbitals. This compound is a common precursor to diverse iron compounds, including many that are useful in small scale organic synthesis. The chart below shows the calculated isotope pattern for the formula Ni(CO) 4 with the most intense ion set to 100%. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. This pale-yellow liquid is the principal carbonyl of nickel. Umar . Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The first consists of headaches and chest pain lasting a few hours, usually followed by a short remission. Inorganic Chemistry 1976 , 15 (11) , 2598-2602. This is the chemical formula for nickel tetracarbonyl (a powerfully poisonous liquid used in nickel refining) : Ni (CO) _4 A Chemical engineer has determined by measurements that there are 3.134 moles of nickel in a sample of nickel tetracarbonyl. Refinement of quadratic force field According to the crystal field theory, $\ce{CO}$ is a strong field ligand and should hence cause the $t_{2g}$ electrons of nickel to pair up, hence leaving 1 $d$ orbital free, which must pair up with empty $s$ and $2p$ orbitals forming 4 $dsp_2$ orbitals yielding a square planar complex. Moles of C = 4 x 7.922 = 31.69 moles. Source(s): https://shrinke.im/a8HiF. 49. Nickel carbonyl is one of the most dangerous substances yet encountered in nickel chemistry due to its very high toxicity, compounded with high volatility and rapid skin absorption. Ni–C and Ni–Cl distances and the angles at nickel are unexceptional and are in a range that has been observed before. DOT ID & Guide. 1.2 Normes antipollution. This is the chemical formula for nickel tetracarbonyl (a powerfully poisonous liquid used in nickel refining) : Ni (CO) _4 A Chemical engineer has determined by measurements that there are 3.134 moles of nickel in a sample of nickel tetracarbonyl. Still … Such reactions also probably proceed via oxidative addition. Nickel tetracarbonyl, Tetracarbonyl nickel CAS No. Nickel tetracarbonyl Ni(CO)4 is an organometallic compound of nickel. Structure & bonding. Cette structure modulaire, la présentation d'ensemble de même que celle de chacun des feuillets sont conçues dans l'optique d'un ouvrage évolutif pouvant être complété et actualisé en permanence. The formula conforms to 18-electron rule. Sabbani Supriya, Samar K. Das. Part II", National Pollutant Inventory – Nickel carbonyl fact sheet, IARC Monograph "Nickel and Nickel compounds", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nickel_tetracarbonyl&oldid=993135875, Articles with changed ChemSpider identifier, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 00:12. Treatment with hydroxides gives clusters such as [Ni5(CO)12]2− and [Ni6(CO)12]2−. Nickel tetracarbonyl. D nd | D nh | D n Pointgroups. (12 pts total) Nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni(CO)4, is a highly toxic, liquid, and volatile substance. C'est un agrégat atomique à géométrie tétraédrique dans lequel quatre ligands carbonyle CO sont liés à l'atome de nickel par une liaison carbone - métal . Solid state structure. The electronic structure of nickel tetracarbonyl and chromium hexacarbonyl (Molecular Physics, 1971) Nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni(CO)4. Thus, treatment of Ni(CO)4 with carbon nucleophiles (Nu−) results in acyl derivatives such as [Ni(CO)3C(O)Nu)]−.[11]. Ce travail de pionnier a éclipsé l'existence de nombreux autres carbonyles métalliques, entre autres ceux de vanadium, de chrome, de manganèse, de fer et de cobalt. Nickel tetracarbonyl contains nickel in the zero oxidation state. This method starts by creating a simpler molecule with the desired symmetry and then transforms the component atoms to create the nickel tetracarbonyl structure. UNII-1ZYL78UWZN. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations of transition metal complexes: I. Thus, donor ligands such as triphenylphosphine react to give Ni(CO)3(PPh3) and Ni(CO)2(PPh3)2. Inhalation of nickel tetracarbonyl causes acute non-specific symptoms similar to a carbon monoxide poisoning as nausea, cough, headache, fever, and dizziness. Treatment with hydroxides gives clusters such as [Ni5(CO)12]2− and [Ni6(CO)12]2−. The molecular structure of gaseous nickel tetracarbonyl has been investigated by electron diffraction at room temperature. This fragment is modified further and then used as the basis for automatic generation of the completed T d structure. Illustrate a "whole molecule" method for building a nickel tetracarbonyl structure with T d symmetry. • Paramagnetic contain 2 unpaired electron. Structure of [Co(NH3)6]3+ 48. Allylic halides give the π-allylnickel compounds, such as (allyl)2Ni2Cl2:[12], The hazards of Ni(CO)4 are far greater than that implied by its CO content, reflecting the effects of the nickel if released in the body. In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. Tetracarbonylnickel. Restrictions on Use None known. C'est un agrégat atomique à géométrie tétraédrique dans lequel quatre ligands carbonyle CO sont liés à l'atome de nickel par une liaison carbone-métal. Answer Save. The molecule is tetrahedral, with four carbonyl carbon monoxide ligands. : Appendix A to Part 355—The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities", "The Toxicology of Nickel Carbonyl. Structure and bonding. Uses: Chemical intermediate for manufacture of high purity nickel. About Nickel tetracarbonyl; Nickel tetracarbonyl weighs 1.319 gram per cubic centimeter or 1 319 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. tetracarbonyl nickel translation in English-French dictionary. Les analyses géométriques par diffraction des électrons ont permis de mesurer la longueur des liaisons Ni–C et C≡O respectivement à 183,8(2) pm et 114,1(2) pm[3]. Nickel Tetracarbonyl Structure and Molecular Orbitals. The CO ligands, in which the C and the O are connected by triple bonds (often depicted as double bonds), are covalently bonded to the nickel atom via the carbon ends. The vapor decomposes quickly in air, with a half-life of about 40 seconds.[14]. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 17 août 2019 à 13:41. The CO ligands, in which the C and the O are connected by triple bonds (often depicted as double bonds), are covalently bonded to the nickel atom via the carbon ends. Element % C: 28.14: Ni: 34.38: O: 37.48: Isotope pattern for Ni(CO) 4. Nickel tetracarbonyl. Its LC50 for a 30-minute exposure has been estimated at 3 ppm, and the concentration that is immediately fatal to humans would be 30 ppm. identifiants Numero CAS. Structure and bonding. In coordination compound: Ligand field and molecular orbital theories DOI: 10.1039/b502481a. Since inner d orbitals are not available, 4s and 4p orbitals will be used to give sp3 hybridized orbitals. Relevance? Geometry of nickel: Prototypical structure: Element analysis . Attack can occur at nickel center, resulting in displacement of CO ligands, or at CO. Like other low-valent metal carbonyls, Ni(CO)4 is susceptible to attack by nucleophiles. There's only one, in effect. Ni- 3d8 4s2. Nickel tetracarbonyl Ni(CO)4? Right-click in the Jmol window to bring up the menu, and choose "console" to bring up the console window. Rain, wind, freezing, thawing and plant roots growing cause the rock to erode away, leaving behind sediments. Autres noms Nickel tétracarbonyle carbonyle de nickel. 4 years ago. The optimal rate occurs at 130 °C. A chemical engineer has determined by measurements that there are 7.922 moles of nickel in a sample of nickel tetracarbonyl. Lv 7. This method builds the nickel tetracarbonyl structure up from nothing by using the Symmetry Toolkit to create an irreducible fragment of unique atoms in the desired symmetry. This fragment is modified further and then used as the basis for automatic generation of the completed T d structure. CONTROLS . Chlorine oxidizes nickel carbonyl into NiCl2, releasing CO gas. [6], At 323 K (50 °C; 122 °F), carbon monoxide is passed over impure nickel. Structure paint Peinture structurée voorstrijkmiddel Voorstrijkmiddel Produit de prétraitement antiek Antiek Antique behandeld Behandeld Treated Traité bepareld Bepareld Bepearled Perlé bewerkt Bewerkt Processed dekkend Dekkend Covering. Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD file The 3d structure may be viewed using Java or Javascript. Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4. Is nickel tetracarbonyl a square planar complex or a tetrahedral complex? Nickel carbonyl poisoning is characterized by a two-stage illness. 1 0. Point group has 4C 2 axes perpendicular to the C 4 axis (main rotation axis). Theoretical study of structures and binding properties of nickel tetracarbonyl, iron pentacarbonyl, and diiron and dicobalt hexacarbonyl acetylenes. Dalton Transactions 2005, 22 (15) , 2527. Reactions of Ni(CO)4 with alkyl and aryl halides often result in carbonylated organic products. Solid state structure. Shape of nickel tetracarbonyl. (T-4)-nickel tetracarbonyl translation in English-French dictionary. Home / Structure and Bonding / Symmetry / Nickel tetracarbonyl – Ni(CO)4 – D4h. It is conveniently generated in the laboratory by carbonylation of commercially available bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0). This reaction provides a convenient method for precipitating the nickel portion of the toxic compound. Nickel tetracarbonyl, Tetracarbonyl nickel CAS No. Demonstrate the Find Symmetry and Symmetry Clean operations of the Symmetry Toolkit. Click on a star to rate it! Nickel carbonyl: Nickel tetracarbonyl Tetracarbonyl nickel ; Formula: Ni(CO) 4: Structure: Description: A clear colorless to yellow liquid. Il s'agit d'un liquide incolore à jaune pâle parmi les plus toxiques utilisés en milieu industriel, intervenant dans le procédé Mond de purification du nickel ainsi que dans la chimie des organométalliques. Formation of [NiCl4]2- • Oxidation is +2. Convalescence is often extremely protracted, often complicated by exhaustion, depression and dyspnea on exertion. Other halogens behave analogously. Nickel carbonyl can be oxidized. The second phase is a chemical pneumonitis which starts after typically 16 hours with symptoms of cough, breathlessness and extreme fatigue. Geometry of nickel: Prototypical structure: Element analysis. After some time, severe pulmonary symptoms such as cough, tachycardia, and cyanosis, or problems in the gastrointestinal … Thus the structure of Nickel tetracarbonyl is, 2) Formation of [NiCl 4] 2-: In this complex nickel is Ni +2 ion, electronic configuration of Ni +2 in ground state is. 13463-39-3 RTECS No. [8] It can also be prepared by reduction of ammoniacal solutions of nickel sulfate with sodium dithionite under an atmosphere of CO.[9], On moderate heating, Ni(CO)4 decomposes to carbon monoxide and nickel metal. Electron diffraction studies have been performed on this molecule, and the Ni–C and C–O distances have been calculated to be 1.838(2) and 1.141(2) angstroms respectively. [4], Ni(CO)4 was first synthesised in 1890 by Ludwig Mond by the direct reaction of nickel metal with CO.[5] This pioneering work foreshadowed the existence of many other metal carbonyl compounds, including those of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. Quincy identifies the poison—nickel carbonyl. Viewed 2k times 4. InChI=1/4CO.Ni/c4*1-2;/rC4NiO4/c6-1-5(2-7,3-8)4-9, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Reactions with nucleophiles and reducing agents, Reactions with electrophiles and oxidizing agents, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "The Extraction of Nickel from its Ores by the Mond Process", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Reaction of Aryl Halides with π-Allylnickel Halides: Methallylbenzene", "Nickel Carbonyl: Acute Exposure Guideline Levels", "40 C.F.R.

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